The Evolution and Emergence of RNA Viruses

Author: Edward C. Holmes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199211124
Format: PDF, ePub
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While the study of viral evolution has developed rapidly in the last 30 years, little attention has been directed toward linking the mechanisms of viral evolution to the epidemiological outcomes of these processes. This book intends to fill this gap by considering the patterns and processes of viral evolution at all its spatial and temporal scales.

Virus as Populations

Author: Esteban Domingo
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128009942
Format: PDF
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Virus as Populations: Composition, Complexity, Dynamics, and Biological Implications explains fundamental concepts that arise from regarding viruses as complex populations when replicating in infected hosts. Fundamental phenomena in virus behavior, such as adaptation to changing environments, capacity to produce disease, probability to be transmitted or response to treatment, depend on virus population numbers and in the variations of such population numbers. Concepts such as quasispecies dynamics, mutations rates, viral fitness, the effect of bottleneck events, population numbers in virus transmission and disease emergence, new antiviral strategies such as lethal mutagenesis, and extensions of population heterogeneity to nonviral systems are included. These main concepts of the book are framed in recent observations on general virus diversity derived from metagenomic studies, and current views on the origin of viruses and the role of viruses in the evolution of the biosphere. Features current views on the key steps in the origin of life and origins of viruses Includes examples relating ancestral features of viruses with their current adaptive capacity Explains complex phenomena in an organized and coherent fashion that is easy to comprehend and enjoyable to read Considers quasispecies as a framework to understand virus adaptability and disease processes

Comparative Genomics

Author: Eric Tannier
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642161812
Format: PDF, ePub
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The complexity of genome evolution has given birth to exciting challenges for computational biologists. A various range of algorithmic, statistical, mathem- ical techniques to elucidate the histories of molecules are developed each year and many are presented at the RECOMB satellite workshop on Comparative Genomics. It is a place where scientists working on all aspects of comparative genomics can share ideas on the development of tools and their application to relevant questions. This volume contains the papers presented at RECOMB-CG 2010, held on October 9–11 in Ottawa. The ?eld is still ?ourishing as seen from the papers presented this year: many developments enrich the combinatorics of genome rearrangements, while gene order phylogenies are becoming more and more - curate, thanks to a mixing of combinatorial and statistical principles, associated with rapid and thoughtful heuristics. Several papers tend to re?ne the models of genome evolution, and more and more genomic events can be modeled, from single nucleotide substitutions in whole genome alignments to large structural mutations or horizontal gene transfers.

Viral Infections of Humans

Author: Richard A. Kaslow
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1489974482
Format: PDF
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Striking changes have occurred in the world since the publication of the last edition of Viral Infections of Humans. The global population is rapidly approaching 8 billion; climate change is leading to the introduction of new hosts, vectors and virus diseases heretofore never seen in many parts of the world; technological advances have revolutionized the ability to recognize and characterize viruses new and old; vaccines are altering the epidemiological landscape of the diseases they target, in some cases raising the hope of their eradication and remarkably powerful computational tools are enabling not only detection of outbreaks of disease much sooner than in the past but also, through complex mathematical modeling, more accurate prediction of their potential impact. The new Fifth Edition of Viral Infections of Humans captures the both the excitement and frustration of the dynamic struggle between humankind and the viruses that continue to cause immense suffering. It presents the latest concepts, methods and technologies in epidemiology, detection, investigation, modeling and intervention. Updated and entirely new chapters by dozens of experts across the field provide analytic summaries of current knowledge of viruses and prions causing acute syndromes, chronic illnesses and/or malignancies. In sum, this ambitiously expanded volume offers a uniquely comprehensive perspective on viruses in humans, from agents of classic diseases (e.g., hepatitis, measles, polio, rabies and yellow fever), to those with greatest pandemic impact (e.g., influenza and human immunodeficiency virus), to those discovered relatively recently (e.g., henipavirus, metapneumovirus and norovirus). The new Fifth Edition of Viral Infections of Humans is an invaluable reference for students, fellows and established professionals in the fields of microbiology, public health and infectious disease epidemiology, medicine and health policy.

Energetic Food Webs

Author: John C. Moore
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198566182
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Food webs describe biological communities in terms of feeding interactions. This book integrates the latest work on community dynamics, ecosystems energetics, and stability to dispel categorisation of the field into separate subdiciplines of population, community, and ecosystem ecology.

The Darwinian Tourist

Author: Christopher Wills
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191625035
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In this magnificently illustrated book, Christopher Wills takes us on a series of adventures. From the underwater life of Indonesia's Lambeh Strait to a little valley in northern Israel, to an earthquake in the coral reef off the island of Yap and the dry valleys of western Mongolia, Wills demonstrates how ecology and evolution have interacted to yield the world we live in. Each chapter features a different location and brings out a different and important message. With the author's own stunning photographs of the wildlife he discovered on his travels, he draws out the evolutionary stories behind the wildlife and shows how our understanding of the living world can be deepened by a Darwinian perspective. Wills demonstrates how looking at the world with evolutionary eyes leaves us with a renewed sense of wonder about life's astounding present-day diversity, along with an appreciation of our evolutionary history.

Evolutionary Ecology of Birds

Author: Peter M. Bennett
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198510888
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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'I think this is a marvellous book - the most exciting I have read for a long time... A terrific text for both final year undergraduates and for graduate courses, as well as required reading for academics working in the field.' Professor Nick Davies, University of CambridgeBirds show bewildering diversity in their life histories, mating systems and risk of extinction. Why, for example, are fairy-wrens so sexually promiscuous while swans show life long monogamy? This fascinating book is a comprehensive re-appraisal of avian diversity, and is the most extensive application of modern comparative methods yet undertaken. 'I think this is a marvellous book - the most exciting I have read for a long time... A terrific text for both final year undergraduates and for graduate courses, as well as required reading for academics working in the field.' Professor Nick Davies, University of Cambridge

Biological Invasions Theory and Practice

Author: Nanako Shigesada
Publisher: Oxford University Press, UK
ISBN: 0191589829
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book deals with the ecological effect a species can have when it moves into an environment that it has not previously occupied (commonly referred to as an 'Invasion'). It is unique in presenting a clear and accessible introduction to a highly complex area - the modelling of biological invasions. The book presents the latest theories and models developed from studies into this crucial area. It includes data and examples from biological case studies showing how the models can be applied to the study of invasions, whether dealing with AIDS, the European rabbit, or prickly pear cactuses. - ;In nature, all organisms migrate or disperse to some extent, either by walking, swimming, flying, or being transported by wind or water. When a species succeeds in colonising an area that it has not previously inhabited, this is referred to as an `invasion'. Humans can precipitate biological invasions often spreading disease or pests by their travels around the world. Using the large amount of data that has been collected from studies worldwide, ranging from pest control to epidemiology, it has been possible to construct mathematical models that can predict which species will become an invader, what kind of habitat is susceptible to invasion by a particular species, and how fast an invasion will spread if it occurs. This book presents a clear and accessible introduction to this highly complex area. Included are data and examples from biological case studies showing how these models can be applied to the study of invasions, whether dealing with AIDS, the European rabbit, or prickly pear cactuses. -

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198028567
Format: PDF
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The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.