The Evolution of the Immune System

Author: Davide Malagoli
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780128019757
Format: PDF
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The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification is the first book of its kind that prompts a new perspective when describing and considering the evolution of the immune system. Its unique approach summarizes, updates, and provides new insights on the different immune receptors, soluble factors, and immune cell effectors. Helps the reader gain a modern idea of the evolution of the immune systems in pluricellular organisms Provides a complete overview of the most studied and hot topics in comparative and evolutionary immunology Reflects the organisation of the immune system (cell-based, humoral [innate], humoral [adaptive]) without introducing further and misleading levels of organization Brings concepts and ideas on the evolution of the immune system to a wide readership

Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Immune System

Author: L. Du Pasquier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642596746
Format: PDF, Docs
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The comparative approach to immunology can be traced to the era of Pasteur and Metchnikov in which observations regarding foreign recognition in invertebrates was a factor in the develop ment of the principal concepts that created the foundation of what now is the broad field of immunology. With each major experimental and conceptual breakthrough, the classical, albeit essential, question has been asked "are the immune systems of phylogenetically primitive vertebrates and invertebrates similar to that of mammals?" Somewhat surprisingly for the jawed verte brates, the general answer has been a qualified form of "yes", whereas for agnathans and invertebrate phyla it has been "no" so far. The apparent abruptness in the appearance of the immune system of vertebrates is linked to the introduction of the somatic generation of the diversity of its antigen specific receptors. Therefore the questions regarding the origin and evolution of the specific immune system revolve around this phenomenon. With respect to the origin of the system (aside from the or igin of the rearranging machinery itself, the study of which is still in its infancy) one can ask questions about the cellular and mo lecular contexts in which the mechanism was introduced.

Ecology and Evolution of Cancer

Author: Beata Ujvari
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128043806
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Ecology and Evolution of Cancer is a timely work outlining ideas that not only represent a substantial and original contribution to the fields of evolution, ecology, and cancer, but also goes beyond by connecting the interfaces of these disciplines. This work engages the expertise of a multidisciplinary research team to collate and review the latest knowledge and developments in this exciting research field. The evolutionary perspective of cancer has gained significant international recognition and interest, which is fully understandable given that somatic cellular selection and evolution are elegant explanations for carcinogenesis. Cancer is now generally accepted to be an evolutionary and ecological process with complex interactions between tumor cells and their environment sharing many similarities with organismal evolution. As a critical contribution to this field of research the book is important and relevant for the applications of evolutionary biology to understand the origin of cancers, to control neoplastic progression, and to prevent therapeutic failures. Covers all aspects of the evolution of cancer, appealing to researchers seeking to understand its origins and effects of treatments on its progression, as well as to lecturers in evolutionary medicine Functions as both an introduction to cancer and evolution and a review of the current research on this burgeoning, exciting field, presented by an international group of leading editors and contributors Improves understanding of the origin and the evolution of cancer, aiding efforts to determine how this disease interferes with biotic interactions that govern ecosystems Highlights research that intends to apply evolutionary principles to help predict emergence and metastatic progression with the aim of improving therapies

Self and Nonself

Author: Carlos López-Larrea
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461416809
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In 1960 Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet received the Noble Prize in Physiology and Medicine. He titled his Nobel Lecture “Immunological Recognition of Self” emphasizing the central argument of immunological tolerance in “How does the vertebrate organism recognize self from nonself in this the immunological sense—and how did the capacity evolve.” The concept of self is linked to the concept of biological self identity. All organisms, from bacteria to higher animals, possess recognition systems to defend themselves from nonself. Even in the context of the limited number of metazoan phyla that have been studied in detail, we can now describe many of the alternative mechanism of immune recognition that have emerged at varying points in phylogeny. Two different arms—the innate and adaptive immune system—have emerged at different moments in evolution, and they are conceptually different. The ultimate goals of immune biology include reconstructing the molecular networks underlying immune processes.

Parasite Diversity and Diversification

Author: Serge Morand
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107037654
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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By joining phylogenetics and evolutionary ecology, this book explores the patterns of parasite diversity while revealing diversification processes.

Somatic Diversification of Immune Responses

Author: Garnett Kelsoe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642719848
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Discovery of the mechanism for V(D)J hypermutation remains a basic goal of immunology despite the best efforts of many labo ratories. The existence of catalyzed, site-specific mutation and its exploitation for the somatic evolution of lymphocytes are re markable adaptations, yet since the discovery of hypermutation in 1970 (see cover), much hard work has generated little. Indeed, our knowledge of what is probably absolutely required for the mutator's action can be succinctly expressed: /g gene enhancers. Table 1 of Winter et a!.'s chapter puts into a historical perspec tive how our notions of the mutator have changed over the years. Despite these modest gains, most of us feel that this is the best of times. Our work has not only shown us what the mutator is not, it has also, like an artist's preliminary sketch, defined the questions and experiments we must face without diminishing the potential for new biology. In short, it is great fun to toil against a significant and enigmatic problem.

Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research

Author: Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in Biomedical and Behavioral Research
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309220408
Format: PDF, ePub
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For many years, experiments using chimpanzees have been instrumental in advancing scientific knowledge and have led to new medicines to prevent life-threatening and debilitating diseases. However, recent advances in alternate research tools have rendered chimpanzees largely unnecessary as research subjects. The Institute of Medicine, in collaboration with the National Research Council, conducted an in-depth analysis of the scientific necessity for chimpanzees in NIH-funded biomedical and behavioral research. The committee concludes that while the chimpanzee has been a valuable animal model in the past, most current biomedical research use of chimpanzees is not necessary, though noted that it is impossible to predict whether research on emerging or new diseases may necessitate chimpanzees in the future.

The Living Elephants

Author: Raman Sukumar
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198026730
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Living Elephants is the authoritative resource for information on both Asian and African elephants. From the ancient origins of the proboscideans to the present-day crisis of the living elephants, this volume synthesizes the behavior, ecology and conservation of elephants, while covering also the history of human interactions with elephants, all within the theoretical framework of evolutionary biology. The book begins with a survey of the 60-million year evolutionary history of the proboscideans emphasizing the role of climate and vegetation change in giving rise to a bewildering array of species, but also discussing the possible role of humans in the late Pleistocene extinction of mastodonts and mammoths. The latest information on the molecular genetics of African and Asian elephants and its taxonomic implications are then presented. The rise of the elephant culture in Asia, and its early demise in Africa are traced along with an original interpretation of this unique animal-human relationship. The book then moves on to the social life of elephants as it relates to reproductive strategies of males and females, development of behavior in young, communication, ranging patterns, and societal organization. The foraging strategies of elephants, their impact on the vegetation and landscape are then discussed. The dynamics of elephant populations in relation to hunting for ivory and their population viability are described with the aid of mathematical models. A detailed account of elephant-human interactions includes a treatment of crop depredation by elephants in relation to their natural ecology, manslaughter by elephants, habitat manipulation by humans, and a history of the ivory trade and poaching in the two continents. The ecological information is brought together in the final chapter to formulate a set of pragmatic recommendations for the long-term conservation of elephants. The broadest treatment of the subject yet undertaken, by one of the leading workers in the field, Raman Sukumar, the book promises to bring the understanding of elephants to a new level. It should be of interest not only to biologists but also a broader audience including field ecologists, wildlife administrators, historians, conservationists and all those interested in elephants and their future.

Evolutionary Conservation of Developmental Mechanisms

Author: Allan C. Spradling
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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An overview of the fundamental mechanisms of multicellular development, focusing on unifying themes in the study of developmental biology. Topics discussed include the role of highly conserved transcription factors in embryonic patterning, generation of distinct germline and soma, transmission and interpretation of information between cells, and evolutionary patterns of sex determination.