The First Galaxies

Author: Tommy Wiklind
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642323626
Format: PDF
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New observations of the period between the cosmic recombination and the end of reionization are posing intriguing questions about where the first generations of stars were formed, how the first galaxies were assembled, whether these galaxies have low redshift counterparts, and what role the early galaxies played in the reionization process. Combining the new observational data with theoretical models can shed new light on open issues regarding the star formation process, its role in the reionization of the Universe, and the metal enrichment in galaxies at those early epochs. This volume brings together leading experts in the field to discuss our current level of understanding and what may come in the near future as our observational as well as theoretical tools improve. The book confronts the theory of how the first stars, black holes, and galaxies formed with current and planned observations. This synthesis is very timely, just ahead of the establishment of major new facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a next-generation, millimeter/sub-millimeter observatory in the Atacama desert (ALMA), and ground-based Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). Together, they will revolutionize the study of the most distant objects in the Universe. This volume is aimed at beginning graduate students but can also serve as a reference work for active researchers in the field. Apart from presenting the fundamental concepts involved, it also provides an introduction to the methods and techniques used. The book will also be useful to anyone with an astrophysical background who needs an effective starting point for learning about the first stars and galaxies.

Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies

Author: Dong-Woo Kim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461405807
Format: PDF, Docs
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Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

Author: Yurij Baryshev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400723795
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book guides readers (astronomers, physicists, and university students) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific endeavor to find the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and matter composition. The authors draw on their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character. These highlighted items are: Ideosyncratic features of the “cosmic laboratory”, Malmquist bias in the determination of cosmic distances, Theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models, Crucial tests for checking the reality of space expansion, Methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies, Usefulness of fractals as a model to describe the large-scale structure and new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model.

The Cause and Evolution of the Universe Fact and Myth in Modern Astrophysics

Author: John Auping
Publisher: Universidad Iberoamericana
ISBN: 1910301523
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book differentiates observationally verified aspects of cosmology from ideas whose verification is distant or perhaps impossible by careful application of orthodox scientific method. This English edition is a part of his original work devoted to describing the dynamics of stars, and analysing the Big Bang, steady state and multiverse models.

Cosmic Rays for Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Author: S. Giani
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814329029
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The conference was aimed at promoting contacts between scientists involved in solar-terrestrial physics, space physics, astroparticle physics and cosmology both from the theoretical and the experimental approach. The conference was devoted to physics and physics requirements, survey of theoretical models and performances of detectors employed (or to be employed) in experiments for fundamental physics, astroparticle physics, astrophysics research and space environment - including Earth magnetosphere and heliosphere and solar-terrestrial physics. Furthermore, cosmic rays have been used to extent the scientific research experience to teachers and students with air shower arrays and other techniques. Presentations included the following subjects: advances in physics from present and next generation ground and space experiments, dark matter, double-beta decay, high-energy astrophysics, space environment, trapped particles, propagation of cosmic rays in the Earth atmosphere, Heliosphere, Galaxy and broader impact activities in cosmic rays science. The open and flexible format of the Conference was conducive to fruitful exchanges of points of view among participants and permitted the evaluation of the progresses made and indicated future research directions. The participants were experienced researchers but also graduate students (MSc and PhD) and recent postdoctoral fellows.

Stellar Pulsations

Author: J.C. Suárez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642296297
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Analyses of photometric time series obtained from the MOST, CoRoT and Kepler space missions were presented at the 20th conference on Stellar Pulsations (Granada, September 2011). These results are leading to a re-appraisal of our views on stellar pulsation in some stars and posing some new and unexpected challenges. The very important and exciting role played by innovative ground-based observational techniques, such as interferometric measurements of giant pulsating stars and high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared, is also discussed. These Proceedings are distinguished by the format of the conference, which brings together a variety of related but different topics not found in other meetings of this nature.

Cosmic Rays in Star Forming Environments

Author: Diego F. Torres
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642354106
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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These are the proceedings of the Sant Cugat Forum 2nd Workshop on Cosmic-ray Induced Phenomenology in Stellar Environments, held April 16-19, 2012. The aim of this Workshop was to address the current knowledge and challenges of high-energy emission from stellar environments at all scales and provide a comprehensive review of the state of the field from the observational to the theoretical perspectives. In the meeting, the prospects for possible observations with planned instruments across the multi-wavelength spectrum were analyzed and also how they impact on our understanding of these systems.

Baryonic Processes in the Large Scale Structuring of the Universe

Author: Jean-Baptiste Durrive
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319618814
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This thesis addresses two very different but equally important topics in the very broad fields of astrophysics and cosmology: (I) the generation of cosmological magnetic fields and (II) gravitational fragmentation of the Cosmic Web. All mathematical developments are completed by illuminating physical interpretations, and the thesis, which is guided by existing observations, is purely theoretical. In part I, the author further develops a magnetogenesis model proposed in the literature, providing an unprecedented level of physical understanding. He demonstrates that the physics of photoionisation is very likely to have premagnetised, at a relevant level, the entire Universe at the early epoch of the formation of the first luminous sources. In part II, the author adapts the tools of plasma spectral theory to the context of gravitational instability of the baryonic gas within the stratified structures of the Cosmic Web. He skillfully derives the wave equation governing the growth of perturbations and explores various equilibrium configurations, in planar and cylindrical geometries characteristic of cosmic walls and filaments, for isothermal and polytropic conditions, with or without an external gravitational background. Clearly structured and written in pedagogical style, this outstanding thesis puts the results into perspective and highlights the merits and limitations of the various approaches explored.

Stellar Astrophysics

Author: Kwong-Sang Cheng
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792366591
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume consists of sixty-two papers contributed by one hundred and twenty authors/co-authors working in the field of stellar research. The conference was the fifth of the Pacific Rim Stellar Conference series and was the second time that Hong Kong hosted the series. These conferences started in 1985, concentrating on binary star research. Over the years, the series has grown wider in scope. During this conference, three topics were covered: binary stars, compact stars, and solar-type stars. Though a 'Pacific Rim' conference, many of the ninety participants were from far regions of the world. The contributions to this proceeding are categorized according to the expertise of the participants into the following six groups: solar/stellar evolution and observational constraints, physics of compact stars and pulsars, observational constraints, physics of binary stars, binary stars with an accretion disk, and observations and theory of high-energy phenomena. The volume contains many updated reviews in these research areas and is a very useful reference for graduate students and researchers.

Black Hole Blues

Author: Janna Levin
Publisher: Knopf
ISBN: 0307958191
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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"In 1916, Einstein became the first to predict the existence of gravitational waves: sounds without a material medium generated by the unfathomably energy-producing collision of black holes. Now, Janna Levin, herself an astrophysicist, recounts the story of the search, over the last fifty years, for these elusive waves--a quest that has culminated in the creation of the most expensive project ever funded by the National Science Foundation ($1 billion-plus). She makes clear the how the waves are created in the cosmic collision of black holes, and why the waves can never be detected by telescope. And, most revealingly, she delves into the lives and fates of the four scientists currently engaged in--and obsessed with--discerning this soundtrack of the universe's history. Levin's account of the surprises, disappointments, achievements, and risks of this unfolding story provides us with a uniquely compelling and intimate portrait of the people and processes of modern science"--