The First Galaxies

Author: Tommy Wiklind
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642323626
Format: PDF, Mobi
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New observations of the period between the cosmic recombination and the end of reionization are posing intriguing questions about where the first generations of stars were formed, how the first galaxies were assembled, whether these galaxies have low redshift counterparts, and what role the early galaxies played in the reionization process. Combining the new observational data with theoretical models can shed new light on open issues regarding the star formation process, its role in the reionization of the Universe, and the metal enrichment in galaxies at those early epochs. This volume brings together leading experts in the field to discuss our current level of understanding and what may come in the near future as our observational as well as theoretical tools improve. The book confronts the theory of how the first stars, black holes, and galaxies formed with current and planned observations. This synthesis is very timely, just ahead of the establishment of major new facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a next-generation, millimeter/sub-millimeter observatory in the Atacama desert (ALMA), and ground-based Extremely Large Telescopes (ELT). Together, they will revolutionize the study of the most distant objects in the Universe. This volume is aimed at beginning graduate students but can also serve as a reference work for active researchers in the field. Apart from presenting the fundamental concepts involved, it also provides an introduction to the methods and techniques used. The book will also be useful to anyone with an astrophysical background who needs an effective starting point for learning about the first stars and galaxies.

Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies

Author: Dong-Woo Kim
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461405807
Format: PDF
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Based on a number of new discoveries resulting from 10 years of Chandra and XMM-Newton observations and corresponding theoretical works, this is the first book to address significant progress in the research of the Hot Interstellar Matter in Elliptical Galaxies. A fundamental understanding of the physical properties of the hot ISM in elliptical galaxies is critical, because they are directly related to the formation and evolution of elliptical galaxies via star formation episodes, environmental effects such as stripping, infall, and mergers, and the growth of super-massive black holes. Thanks to the outstanding spatial resolution of Chandra and the large collecting area of XMM-Newton, various fine structures of the hot gas have been imaged in detail and key physical quantities have been accurately measured, allowing theoretical interpretations/predictions to be compared and tested against observational results. This book will bring all readers up-to-date on this essential field of research.

Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology

Author: Yurij Baryshev
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400723795
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book guides readers (astronomers, physicists, and university students) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific endeavor to find the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and matter composition. The authors draw on their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character. These highlighted items are: Ideosyncratic features of the “cosmic laboratory”, Malmquist bias in the determination of cosmic distances, Theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models, Crucial tests for checking the reality of space expansion, Methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies, Usefulness of fractals as a model to describe the large-scale structure and new cosmological physics inherent in the Friedmann world model.

The Cause and Evolution of the Universe Fact and Myth in Modern Astrophysics

Author: John Auping
Publisher: Universidad Iberoamericana
ISBN: 1910301523
Format: PDF
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This book differentiates observationally verified aspects of cosmology from ideas whose verification is distant or perhaps impossible by careful application of orthodox scientific method. This English edition is a part of his original work devoted to describing the dynamics of stars, and analysing the Big Bang, steady state and multiverse models.

Stellar Pulsations

Author: J.C. Suárez
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642296297
Format: PDF, Docs
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Analyses of photometric time series obtained from the MOST, CoRoT and Kepler space missions were presented at the 20th conference on Stellar Pulsations (Granada, September 2011). These results are leading to a re-appraisal of our views on stellar pulsation in some stars and posing some new and unexpected challenges. The very important and exciting role played by innovative ground-based observational techniques, such as interferometric measurements of giant pulsating stars and high-resolution spectroscopy in the near infrared, is also discussed. These Proceedings are distinguished by the format of the conference, which brings together a variety of related but different topics not found in other meetings of this nature.

The Symbiotic Phenomenon

Author: Joanna Mikolajewska
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400929692
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Symbiotic stars were identified spectroscopically as M giants with a very strong He II 4686 emission line. After five decades of study by many astronomers, the first internatioinal meetings devoted to symbiotics were held at the University of Colorado (Boulder) and at the Haute Provence Observatory during the Summer of 1981. These conferences emphasized exciting new results obtained by modern satellite (EINSTEIN, IUE) and ground-based observatories. Although the vast majority of the participants were already fairly sure that symbiotics are almost certainly interacting binary systems, and not extremely peculiar single stars, it was not clear exactly which types of physical processes were needed to be invoked to explain their observed behaviour. Many were even worried that it might not be possible to clearly define a class of "symbiotic stars" , and thus establish a unique model applicable to any system. Since the publication of the Haute-Provence proceedings, our understanding of the physical processes occuring in symbiotic stars (and in related objects such as cataclysmic variables and compact planetary nebulae) has greatly improved. We now speak confidently of a "symbiotic phenomenon" , in which an evolved red giant and a hot companion object (usually thought to be an accreting main sequence star or a luminous white dwarf star) happily coexist.

Cosmic Rays for Particle and Astroparticle Physics

Author: S. Giani
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814329029
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The conference was aimed at promoting contacts between scientists involved in solar-terrestrial physics, space physics, astroparticle physics and cosmology both from the theoretical and the experimental approach. The conference was devoted to physics and physics requirements, survey of theoretical models and performances of detectors employed (or to be employed) in experiments for fundamental physics, astroparticle physics, astrophysics research and space environment - including Earth magnetosphere and heliosphere and solar-terrestrial physics. Furthermore, cosmic rays have been used to extent the scientific research experience to teachers and students with air shower arrays and other techniques. Presentations included the following subjects: advances in physics from present and next generation ground and space experiments, dark matter, double-beta decay, high-energy astrophysics, space environment, trapped particles, propagation of cosmic rays in the Earth atmosphere, Heliosphere, Galaxy and broader impact activities in cosmic rays science. The open and flexible format of the Conference was conducive to fruitful exchanges of points of view among participants and permitted the evaluation of the progresses made and indicated future research directions. The participants were experienced researchers but also graduate students (MSc and PhD) and recent postdoctoral fellows.

Baryonic Processes in the Large Scale Structuring of the Universe

Author: Jean-Baptiste Durrive
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319618814
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This thesis addresses two very different but equally important topics in the very broad fields of astrophysics and cosmology: (I) the generation of cosmological magnetic fields and (II) gravitational fragmentation of the Cosmic Web. All mathematical developments are completed by illuminating physical interpretations, and the thesis, which is guided by existing observations, is purely theoretical. In part I, the author further develops a magnetogenesis model proposed in the literature, providing an unprecedented level of physical understanding. He demonstrates that the physics of photoionisation is very likely to have premagnetised, at a relevant level, the entire Universe at the early epoch of the formation of the first luminous sources. In part II, the author adapts the tools of plasma spectral theory to the context of gravitational instability of the baryonic gas within the stratified structures of the Cosmic Web. He skillfully derives the wave equation governing the growth of perturbations and explores various equilibrium configurations, in planar and cylindrical geometries characteristic of cosmic walls and filaments, for isothermal and polytropic conditions, with or without an external gravitational background. Clearly structured and written in pedagogical style, this outstanding thesis puts the results into perspective and highlights the merits and limitations of the various approaches explored.

Cosmic Rays in Star Forming Environments

Author: Diego F. Torres
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642354106
Format: PDF, ePub
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These are the proceedings of the Sant Cugat Forum 2nd Workshop on Cosmic-ray Induced Phenomenology in Stellar Environments, held April 16-19, 2012. The aim of this Workshop was to address the current knowledge and challenges of high-energy emission from stellar environments at all scales and provide a comprehensive review of the state of the field from the observational to the theoretical perspectives. In the meeting, the prospects for possible observations with planned instruments across the multi-wavelength spectrum were analyzed and also how they impact on our understanding of these systems.

Astrophysics at Very High Energies

Author: Felix Aharonian
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364236134X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA’s Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergström presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.