The Hindu Arabic Numerals

Author: David Eugene Smith
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486155110
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Concise history of the origin and development of Hindu-Arabic numerals recounts international labors of scholars, assesses the historical testimony, and draws conclusions from the evidence. 1911 edition.


Author: Graham Flegg
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486166511
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Readable, jargon-free book examines the earliest endeavors to count and record numbers, initial attempts to solve problems by using equations, and origins of infinite cardinal arithmetic. "Surprisingly exciting." — Choice.

Creators of Mathematical and Computational Sciences

Author: Ravi P Agarwal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319108700
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
​The book records the essential discoveries of mathematical and computational scientists in chronological order, following the birth of ideas on the basis of prior ideas ad infinitum. The authors document the winding path of mathematical scholarship throughout history, and most importantly, the thought process of each individual that resulted in the mastery of their subject. The book implicitly addresses the nature and character of every scientist as one tries to understand their visible actions in both adverse and congenial environments. The authors hope that this will enable the reader to understand their mode of thinking, and perhaps even to emulate their virtues in life.

Man and Number

Author: Donald Smeltzer
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486432762
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
This exploration of how people came to appreciate numbers traces the ways in which early humans gradually evolved methods for recording numerical data and performing simple calculations. Its profiles of ancient systems of recording numbers include Egyptian, Maya and Aztec, Chinese, Greek, and the techniques of other cultures. 1974 edition.

History of Mathematics

Author: Craig Smorynski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387754814
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
General textbooks, attempting to cover three thousand or so years of mathematical history, must necessarily oversimplify just about everything, the practice of which can scarcely promote a critical approach to the subject. To counter this, History of Mathematics offers deeper coverage of key select topics, providing students with material that could encourage more critical thinking. It also includes the proofs of important results which are typically neglected in the modern history of mathematics curriculum.

Number Theory and Its History

Author: Oystein Ore
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486656205
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Unusually clear, accessible introduction covers counting, properties of numbers, prime numbers, Aliquot parts, Diophantine problems, congruences, much more. Bibliography.

The Story of Numbers

Author: John McLeish
Publisher: Ballantine Books
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
The history of mathematics is enumerated in human terms, including the development of number systems in cultures from ancient to modern times, how systems and cultures shaped each other, and everyday people working with everyday problems. Reprint.

Finding Zero

Author: Amir D. Aczel
Publisher: St. Martin's Press
ISBN: 1466879106
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
The invention of numerals is perhaps the greatest abstraction the human mind has ever created. Virtually everything in our lives is digital, numerical, or quantified. The story of how and where we got these numerals, which we so depend on, has for thousands of years been shrouded in mystery. Finding Zero is an adventure filled saga of Amir Aczel's lifelong obsession: to find the original sources of our numerals. Aczel has doggedly crisscrossed the ancient world, scouring dusty, moldy texts, cross examining so-called scholars who offered wildly differing sets of facts, and ultimately penetrating deep into a Cambodian jungle to find a definitive proof. Here, he takes the reader along for the ride. The history begins with the early Babylonian cuneiform numbers, followed by the later Greek and Roman letter numerals. Then Aczel asks the key question: where do the numbers we use today, the so-called Hindu-Arabic numerals, come from? It is this search that leads him to explore uncharted territory, to go on a grand quest into India, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and ultimately into the wilds of Cambodia. There he is blown away to find the earliest zero—the keystone of our entire system of numbers—on a crumbling, vine-covered wall of a seventh-century temple adorned with eaten-away erotic sculptures. While on this odyssey, Aczel meets a host of fascinating characters: academics in search of truth, jungle trekkers looking for adventure, surprisingly honest politicians, shameless smugglers, and treacherous archaeological thieves—who finally reveal where our numbers come from.