The Hindu Arabic Numerals

Author: David Eugene Smith
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486155110
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Concise history of the origin and development of Hindu-Arabic numerals recounts international labors of scholars, assesses the historical testimony, and draws conclusions from the evidence. 1911 edition.

Numbers

Author: Graham Flegg
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486166511
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Readable, jargon-free book examines the earliest endeavors to count and record numbers, initial attempts to solve problems by using equations, and origins of infinite cardinal arithmetic. "Surprisingly exciting." — Choice.

Fibonacci s Liber Abaci

Author: Laurence Sigler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461300797
Format: PDF, Kindle
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First published in 1202, Fibonacci’s Liber Abaci was one of the most important books on mathematics in the Middle Ages, introducing Arabic numerals and methods throughout Europe. This is the first translation into a modern European language, of interest not only to historians of science but also to all mathematicians and mathematics teachers interested in the origins of their methods.

Man and Number

Author: Donald Smeltzer
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 9780486432762
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This exploration of how people came to appreciate numbers traces the ways in which early humans gradually evolved methods for recording numerical data and performing simple calculations. Its profiles of ancient systems of recording numbers include Egyptian, Maya and Aztec, Chinese, Greek, and the techniques of other cultures. 1974 edition.

Mathematical Recreations

Author: Maurice Kraitchik
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486453588
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Ranging from ancient Greek and Roman problems to the most modern applications of special mathematical techniques for amusement, this popular volume contains material to delight both beginners and advanced mathematicians. Its 250 lively puzzles, problems, situations, and demonstrations of recreational mathematics feature full solutions and analyses. Fifty-seven highly unusual historic problems are derived from ancient Greek, medieval European, Arabic, and Hindu sources. Other problems are based on "mathematics without numbers," geometry, topology, the calendar, arithmetic, and the mathematics of chess moves. Fifty pages comprise numerical pastimes built out of figurate numbers, Mersenne numbers, Fermat numbers, cyclic numbers, automorphic numbers, and prime numbers; probability problems are also fully analyzed. More than forty pages are devoted to magic squares, and the concluding portion of the book presents more than twenty-five new positional and permutational games of permanent value. A discussion of fairy chess is followed by rules and procedural information on latruncles, go, reversi, jinx, ruma, lasca, tricolor, four-story towers, tetrachrome, and other games. More than a collection of wonderful puzzles, this volume offers a thorough, rigorous, and entertaining sampler of recreational mathematics, highlighted by numerous insights into specialized fields.

Creators of Mathematical and Computational Sciences

Author: Ravi Agarwal
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319108700
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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​The book records the essential discoveries of mathematical and computational scientists in chronological order, following the birth of ideas on the basis of prior ideas ad infinitum. The authors document the winding path of mathematical scholarship throughout history, and most importantly, the thought process of each individual that resulted in the mastery of their subject. The book implicitly addresses the nature and character of every scientist as one tries to understand their visible actions in both adverse and congenial environments. The authors hope that this will enable the reader to understand their mode of thinking, and perhaps even to emulate their virtues in life.

Enlightening Symbols

Author: Joseph Mazur
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400850118
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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While all of us regularly use basic math symbols such as those for plus, minus, and equals, few of us know that many of these symbols weren't available before the sixteenth century. What did mathematicians rely on for their work before then? And how did mathematical notations evolve into what we know today? In Enlightening Symbols, popular math writer Joseph Mazur explains the fascinating history behind the development of our mathematical notation system. He shows how symbols were used initially, how one symbol replaced another over time, and how written math was conveyed before and after symbols became widely adopted. Traversing mathematical history and the foundations of numerals in different cultures, Mazur looks at how historians have disagreed over the origins of the numerical system for the past two centuries. He follows the transfigurations of algebra from a rhetorical style to a symbolic one, demonstrating that most algebra before the sixteenth century was written in prose or in verse employing the written names of numerals. Mazur also investigates the subconscious and psychological effects that mathematical symbols have had on mathematical thought, moods, meaning, communication, and comprehension. He considers how these symbols influence us (through similarity, association, identity, resemblance, and repeated imagery), how they lead to new ideas by subconscious associations, how they make connections between experience and the unknown, and how they contribute to the communication of basic mathematics. From words to abbreviations to symbols, this book shows how math evolved to the familiar forms we use today.

Number Theory and Its History

Author: Oystein Ore
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486136434
Format: PDF, ePub
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Unusually clear, accessible introduction covers counting, properties of numbers, prime numbers, Aliquot parts, Diophantine problems, congruences, much more. Bibliography.

History of Mathematics

Author: Craig Smorynski
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387754814
Format: PDF, ePub
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General textbooks, attempting to cover three thousand or so years of mathematical history, must necessarily oversimplify just about everything, the practice of which can scarcely promote a critical approach to the subject. To counter this, History of Mathematics offers deeper coverage of key select topics, providing students with material that could encourage more critical thinking. It also includes the proofs of important results which are typically neglected in the modern history of mathematics curriculum.

The Story of Numbers

Author: John McLeish
Publisher: Ballantine Books
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The history of mathematics is enumerated in human terms, including the development of number systems in cultures from ancient to modern times, how systems and cultures shaped each other, and everyday people working with everyday problems. Reprint.