The Ideals of Joseph Ben David

Author: Liah Greenfeld
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 141284682X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Joseph Ben-David died twenty-five years ago, in January 1986. An eminent sociologist of science, and a co-founder of this sub-discipline, he was only sixty-five years old. Few social scientists are remembered after they die and can no longer parlay their influence into the goods of this world for colleagues and acquaintances. This was not Ben-David’s fate. His work continues to be taught and referred to by scholars spread far and wide (in terms of both countries and disciplines). His students never forgot him, his books were republished, and his essays appeared in new collections. Ben-David’s legacy includes ideas and ideals. Its central tenet is the autonomy of science, its right—and duty—to be value-free. Scholarship oriented to any goal other than the accumulation of objective knowledge about empirical reality, for him, was science no longer and did not have its authority. In this light, the life of scholarship was one of moral dedication, with nothing less than the fate of liberal democratic society depending on it. And for science to thrive, the university, its home, had to be the embodiment of the cardinal virtue of this society: the virtue of civility. In the spirit of Ben-David, believing that scholarly debate advances common good, and rational discourse wins whichever way arguments in it are settled, this festschrift debates such core issues as the nature of science, its changing definition and position in Western society, the forms of organization optimal for scientific creativity, and the ability of the research university to foster scientific growth, while also performing its educational role.

Centered of Learning

Author: Joseph Ben-David
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
ISBN: 9781560006046
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The universities of Britain, France, Germany, and the United States stem from a common European academic tradition and are today among the most influential and powerful in the world. Each has cultivated a high degree of scientific excellence and intellectual autonomy and has served as a model for world higher education. Yet these four systems are structurally distinct and show considerably different patterns of development. In Centers of Learning Joseph Ben-David explores these differences and provides insight into the role and scope of contemporary higher education. Although the movement toward modem systems grew out of shared convictions and practical needs, Ben-David's comparative analysis shows that educational reform had surprisingly different consequences in America, England, Germany, and France. In France, higher education became identified with the purposes and authority of the state through specialized training for various professionals. In contrast, the German reforms consolidated the scholarly disciplines under a highly centralized university system with no special status accorded to the professional faculties. In England, Oxford and Cambridge adopted the German model, but smaller specialized institutions established a tradition of academic diversity and community 'service. The modernization of the American system followed the European reforms in updating the scientific curriculum and following the university model, but with a special emphasis on extending higher educational status to a broad strata of the population. In assessing the development of these systems, Ben-David finds their greatest success in extending the prestige and benefits of higher learning to the professions. General education, while strong in America, has suffered in the European systems, especially through its slackening ties to research. Centers of Learning contains a forceful critique of the politicization of the academy. Ben-David sees the furthering of social justice and equality as a necessary, though controlled part of the university's mission. Uncontrolled, political criticism will have the potential for disrupting educational functions and undermining the relationship between the university and society. In undertaking a historical survey of national education endeavors, this volume clarifies the contexts of current problems and inadequacies. Its broad-ranging analyses and proposed solutions make it essential reading for educators, social historians, political scientists, and sociologists.

A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education

Author: Heather Fry
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317650220
Format: PDF, Docs
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This entirely new edition of a very successful book focuses on developing professional academic skills for supporting and supervising student learning and effective teaching. It is built on the premise that the roles of those who teach in higher education are complex and multi-faceted. A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education is sensitive to the competing demands of teaching, research, scholarship, and academic management. The new edition reflects and responds to the rapidly changing context of higher education and to current understanding of how to best support student learning. Drawing together a large number of expert authors, it continues to feature extensive use of case studies that show how successful teachers have implemented these ideas. It includes key topics such as student engagement and motivation, internationalisation, employability, inclusive strategies for teaching, effective use of technology and issues relating to postgraduate students and student retention. Part 1 explores a number of aspects of the context of UK higher education that affect the education of students, looking at the drivers of institutional behaviours and how to achieve success as a university teacher. Part 2 examines learning, teaching and supervising in higher education and includes chapters on working with diversity, encouraging independent learning and learning gain. Part 3 considers approaches to teaching and learning in different disciplines, covering a full range including arts and humanities, social sciences, experimental sciences through to medicine and dentistry. Written to support the excellence in teaching and learning design required to bring about student learning of the highest quality, this will be essential reading for all new lecturers, particularly anyone taking an accredited course in teaching and learning in higher education, as well as those experienced lecturers who wish to improve their teaching practice. Those working in adult learning and educational development will also find the book to be a particularly useful resource. In addition it will appeal to staff who support learning and teaching in various other roles.

A Framework for K 12 Science Education

Author: Committee on Conceptual Framework for the New K-12 Science Education Standards
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309214424
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Science, engineering, and technology permeate nearly every facet of modern life and hold the key to solving many of humanity's most pressing current and future challenges. The United States' position in the global economy is declining, in part because U.S. workers lack fundamental knowledge in these fields. To address the critical issues of U.S. competitiveness and to better prepare the workforce, A Framework for K-12 Science Education proposes a new approach to K-12 science education that will capture students' interest and provide them with the necessary foundational knowledge in the field. A Framework for K-12 Science Education outlines a broad set of expectations for students in science and engineering in grades K-12. These expectations will inform the development of new standards for K-12 science education and, subsequently, revisions to curriculum, instruction, assessment, and professional development for educators. This book identifies three dimensions that convey the core ideas and practices around which science and engineering education in these grades should be built. These three dimensions are: crosscutting concepts that unify the study of science through their common application across science and engineering; scientific and engineering practices; and disciplinary core ideas in the physical sciences, life sciences, and earth and space sciences and for engineering, technology, and the applications of science. The overarching goal is for all high school graduates to have sufficient knowledge of science and engineering to engage in public discussions on science-related issues, be careful consumers of scientific and technical information, and enter the careers of their choice. A Framework for K-12 Science Education is the first step in a process that can inform state-level decisions and achieve a research-grounded basis for improving science instruction and learning across the country. The book will guide standards developers, teachers, curriculum designers, assessment developers, state and district science administrators, and educators who teach science in informal environments.

The Institution of Science and the Science of Institutions

Author: Marcel Herbst
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400774079
Format: PDF
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The present anthology, edited by Marcel Herbst, is partially based on a conference, held in 2009, to reflect on the legacy of Ben-David, and contains a selection of substantially revised papers, plus four contributions specifically written for this volume. The book focuses on three major lines of Ben-David’s research, namely “Center and Periphery” (Part I), “Role and Ethos” (Part II), and “Organization and Growth” (Part III). In addition, comprehensive introductory (“Prologue”) and concluding chapters (“Epilogue”, Part IV) by Marcel Herbst are provided. The volume addresses the following disciplines: higher education, history and sociology of science, philosophy of science, history of medicine, public administration, policy studies, Jewish studies, and economics. The anthology is one of two new publications on Joseph Ben-David after the special Minerva edition Vol. 25, Numbers 1–2, March 1987, and Gad Freudenthal’s collection of Ben-David’s writings [1991]. The text can be used in graduate studies, it addresses higher education professionals or public officials, and serves as a gateway to researchers in the field of higher education, science studies, or policy sciences.

The Social Function of Science

Author: J. D. Bernal
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780571272723
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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J. D. Bernal’s important and ambitious work, The Social Function of Science, was first published in January 1939. As the subtitle –What Science Does, What Science Could Do – suggests it is in two parts. Both have eight chapters. Part 1: What Science Does: Introductory, Historical, The Existing Organization of Scientific Research in Britain, Science in Education, The Efficiency of Scientific Research, The Application of Science, Science and War and International Science. Part 11: What Science Could Do: The Training of the Scientist, The Reorganization of Research, Scientific Communication, The Finance of Science, The Strategy of Scientific Advance; Science in the Service of Man, Science and Social Transformation and The Social Function of Science. To quote Bernal’s biographer, Andrew Brown, ‘The Social Function of Science . . . was Bernal’s attempt to ensure that science would no longer be just a protected area of intellectual inquiry, but would have as an inherent function the improvement of life for mankind everywhere. It was a groundbreaking treatise both in exploring the scope of science and technology in fashioning public policy, with Bernal arguing that science is the chief agent of change in society, and in devising policies that would optimize the way science was organized. The sense of impending war clearly emerges. Bernal deplored the application of scientific discoveries in making war ever more destructive, while acknowledging that the majority of scientific and technical breakthroughs have their origins in military exigencies, both because of the willingness to spend money and the premium placed on novelty during wartime.’ Anticipating by two decades the schism C. P. Snow termed ‘The Two Cultures’, Bernal remarked that ‘highly developed science stands almost isolated from a traditional literary culture.’ He found that wrong. Again, quoting Andrew Brown, ‘to him, science was a creative endeavour that still depended on inspiration and talent, just as much as in painting, writing or composing.’The importance of this book was such that twenty-five years after its publication, a collection of essays, The Science of Science, was published, in part in celebration, but also to explore many of the themes Bernal had first developed.

A Troublesome Inheritance

Author: Nicholas Wade
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0143127160
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Drawing on the work of scientists who have made crucial—and startling—breakthroughs in establishing the reality of recent human evolution, a longtime journalist covering genetic advances for The New York Times examines the genetic basis of race and its role in human history.

Successful STEM Education

Author: Board on Science Education
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030921890X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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What students learn about the science disciplines, technology, engineering, and mathematics during their K-12 schooling shapes their intellectual development, opportunities for future study and work, and choices of career, as well as their capacity to make informed decisions about political and civic issues and about their own lives. Most people share the vision that a highly capable STEM workforce and a population that understands and supports the scientific enterprise are key to the future place of the United States in global economics and politics and to the well-being of the nation. Indeed, the solutions to some of the most daunting problems facing the nation will require not only the expertise of top STEM professionals but also the wisdom and understanding of its citizens. Although much is known about why schools may not succeed, it is far less clear what makes STEM education effective. Successful STEM Education: A Workshop Summary discusses the importance of STEM education. The report describes the primary types of K-12 schools and programs that can support successful education in the STEM disciplines and examines data and research that demonstrate the effectiveness of these school types. It also summarizes research that helps to identify both the elements that make such programs effective and what is needed to implement these elements.

Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research

Author: Institute of Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 9780309165488
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research examines current interdisciplinary research efforts and recommends ways to stimulate and support such research. Advances in science and engineering increasingly require the collaboration of scholars from various fields. This shift is driven by the need to address complex problems that cut across traditional disciplines, and the capacity of new technologies to both transform existing disciplines and generate new ones. At the same time, however, interdisciplinary research can be impeded by policies on hiring, promotion, tenure, proposal review, and resource allocation that favor traditional disciplines. This report identifies steps that researchers, teachers, students, institutions, funding organizations, and disciplinary societies can take to more effectively conduct, facilitate, and evaluate interdisciplinary research programs and projects. Throughout the report key concepts are illustrated with case studies and results of the committee’s surveys of individual researchers and university provosts.