The Indonesian Labour Market

Author: Shafiq Dhanani
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134404980
Format: PDF
Download Now
The topics of unemployment, underemployment, wage trends and patterns, and the relationship between poverty and the labour market are of interest to all policy makers, researchers, academics and journalists concerned with economic development. This book traces the evolution of the Indonesian labour market between the early 1970s and late 2000s. This entails a (a) review of macroeconomic policies and their employment impact; (b) review of unemployment and underemployment trends; (c) review of wage trends and living standards; (d) relationship between poverty, inequality and the labour market; and (e) labour market regulations, employment and the business environment. The book comes up with a number of policy-relevant findings. Macroeconomic policies, particularly inflation targeting in the 2000-2007 period, have not been conducive to employment generation. The assumption that unemployment is an appropriate indicator of labour market performance and, more importantly, that it is closely aligned with poverty, is shown to be inaccurate. Sustained real wage growth in the twenty-year period before the 1997 financial crisis is contrasted with the lack of improvement since then, a period otherwise of respectable economic growth by international standards. The predicted adverse consequences of sweeping labour market regulations in 2000-2007 on properly measured employment, unemployment and labour costs did not materialize, mainly because of low compliance. It seems that a restrictive macroeconomic framework has been more constraining for employment growth than the perceived labour market rigidity during the post-crisis period. The book concludes with an evaluation of several ‘reactive’ and ‘proactive’ labour market policies. Though these are complementary, policy makers in Indonesia have probably put too much emphasis on reactive policies such minimum wage and severance pay, and not enough on proactive policies aimed at creating an adaptable and skilled workforce.

The Labour Markets of Emerging Economies

Author: Sandrine Cazes
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137325356
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
The past few decades have witnessed the economic and geopolitical rise of a number of large middle-income countries around the world. This volume focuses on the labour market situations, trends and regulations in these emerging economies.

Transformation of Women at Work in Asia

Author: Sukti Dasgupta
Publisher: SAGE Publications India
ISBN: 938598506X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This book examines the drivers of, and barriers to, participation of women in the Asian labour market for its socio-economic development and structural transformation. Based on original comparative research and extensive fieldwork, Transformation of Women at Work in Asia highlights the commonalities as well as the diverse nature of challenges that women across Asia face in gaining access to more and better jobs. Findings show that women across the continent have contributed significantly to its spectacular growth story; yet, social norms and economic factors limit their levels of participation. The book calls for a comprehensive approach to improve opportunities for women’s participation in the labour market as well as for the freedom to engage in paid employment. This will, in turn, contribute to a more inclusive growth process. It addresses important challenges faced by women workers and provides policy options for governments to promote decent work opportunities for women across social strata.

Labour Markets and Economic Development

Author: Ravi Kanbur
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 0415777410
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
As developing and transition economies enter the next phase of reforms, labor market issues increasingly come to the fore. With the increased competition from globalization, the discussion is shifting to the need for greater labor market flexibility and the creation of "good" jobs. Moreover, the greater actual and perceived insecurity in labor markets has generated a new agenda on how to structure safety nets and labor market regulation. The older questions of the links between the formal and informal labor market, reappear with new dimensions and significance. More generally, it is clear that an accurate understanding of how labor market structures function is essential if we are to analyze alternative policy proposals in the wake of these concerns. Oddly enough, in spite of this great importance, there are no recent monographs that bring together rigorous studies produced by academic researchers on these various issues. This book fills that gap. Under the steely editorship of Ravi Kanbur and Jan Svejnar, the contributors flourish in their attempts to enliven these debates.

Employment and Inclusive Development

Author: Rizwanul Islam
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135971587
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Issues relating to employment and labour have once again come to the fore of global policy debates in the wake of the widespread unemployment that has accompanied the current financial crisis. In the developing world, there is a growing realization that productive employment promotion and social protection have to be at the core of inclusive growth and development. This book supports the view that employment is a cross-cutting issue shaped by macroeconomic and microeconomic policy interventions, and provides a capacious framework to analyse the complexity of this global debate. It covers a wide range of issues that have received insufficient attention in the discourse of development and labour economics. These include the impact of macroeconomic policies on employment, labour rights, the development of human capabilities and employability, youth employment, the benefits and costs of labour market flexibility, and the importance of social protection for all. This important book aims at filling this gap by revisiting old debates and reconnecting them to the contemporary context, combining analyses with relevant empirical evidence. It will appeal to a diverse readership of academic institutions and think-tanks, international organizations, bilateral donors working on development issues and policy-makers in developing countries.

Gender Disparities in Africa s Labor Market

Author: Jorge Saba Arbache
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821380702
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Women's earnings are a fraction of male's earnings in several African countries. It is tempting to conclude that this wage gap is a sign of discrimination against women in the labor market. Yet this book uses new datasets to show that the gap is not simply the result of discrimination in the labor markets, but rather the result of multiple factors, including access to education and credit, cultural values and household duties, and, above all, labor market conditions. It shows that gender disparities grow when economies are not functioning well and labor markets are tiny. More than the effect of discrimination, it seems that job rationing causes those with better human capital and those with more power in the household usually the men to take the few jobs that are available. It is hardly surprising, then, that in a region where only a fraction of the labor force finds jobs in the formal sector, gender disparities in earnings are so high. The book further documents that firm-level and sector characteristics are additional powerful factors in explaining the gender disparities in the labor market. As the causes are not simple, neither are the solutions; multifaceted strategies are needed. By providing environments that support economic growth and, more importantly, job creation, as well as by promoting equal access for women to education and rethinking the attitudes that limit what women may achieve, governments in the region will substantially improve the well-being of all their peoples. 'Gender Disparities in Africa's Labor Market' helps to fill the knowledge gap and identify the links between gender disparities and poverty reduction. The work was implemented in collaboration with a range of poverty and labor market studies to maximize its usefulness for policy dialogue in specific countries. This book will be of interest to policy makers, students, academics, gender experts, and all those interested in gender issues and development.

Trade and Employment in Asia

Author: Niny Khor
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135945543
Format: PDF
Download Now
This volume investigates the links between employment, trade and structural transformation. In the context of global rebalancing, accompanied by inevitable changes in trade patterns between Asia and the rest of the world, the volume’s chapters analyze the links between trade openness and trends in employment and its quality. Specifically, through Asian case studies (both analytical and econometric), the volume examines how trade and export-led growth models have led to specialization and evolving demands on various types of labor. The rapidly changing labor market contours in developing Asia during this era of globalization, along with the new context resulting from the recent global financial crisis and new insights from theoretical literature, have led to the need for such studies. This volume helps fill this gap in the literature.

The Global Gender Gap Report 2009

Author:
Publisher: World Economic Forum
ISBN: 9295044282
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
"The Index benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, political, education- and health-based criteria, and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparions across regions and income groups, over time"-- Page 3.

Global Value Chains in a Changing World

Author: Deborah Kay Elms
Publisher:
ISBN: 9789287038821
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
A collection of papers by some of the world's leading specialists on global value chains (GVCs). It examines how GVCs have evolved and the challenges they face in a rapidly changing world. The approach is multi-disciplinary, with contributions from economists, political scientists, supply chain management specialists, practitioners and policy-makers. Co-published with the Fung Global Institute and the Temasek

East Asia Pacific at Work

Author: World Bank Group
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464800049
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
The unprecedented progress of East Asia Pacific is a triumph of working people. Countries that were low-income a generation ago successfully integrated into the global value chain, exploiting their labor-cost advantage. In 1990, the region held about a third of the world’s labor force. Leveraging this comparative advantage, the share of global GDP of emerging economies in East Asia Pacific grew from 7 percent in 1992 to 17 percent in 2011. Yet, the region now finds itself at a critical juncture. Work and its contribution to growth and well-being can no longer be taken for granted. The challenges range from high youth inactivity and rising inequality to binding skills shortages. A key underlying issue is economic informality, which constrains innovation and productivity, limits the tax base, and increases household vulnerability to shocks. Informality is both a consequence of stringent labor regulations and limited enforcement capacity. In several countries, de jure employment regulations are more stringent than in many parts of Europe. Even labor regulations set at reasonable levels but poorly implemented can aggravate the market failures they were designed to overcome. This report argues that the appropriate policy responses are to ensure macroeconomic stability, and in particular, a regulatory framework that encourages small- and medium-sized enterprises where most people in the region work. Mainly agrarian countries should focus on raising agricultural productivity. In urbanizing countries, good urban planning becomes critical. Pacific island countries will need to provide youth with human capital needed to succeed abroad as migrant workers. And, across the region, it is critical to ‘formalize’ more work, to increase the coverage of essential social protection, and to sustain productivity. To this end, policies should encourage mobility of labor and human capital, and not favor some forms of employment - for instance, full-time wage employment in manufacturing - over others, either implicitly or explicitly. Policies to increase growth and well-being from employment should instead reflect and support the dynamism and diversity of work forms across the region.