The Islamic Republic of Iran

Author: Jahangir Amuzegar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317625420
Format: PDF
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This title provides an in depth study of Iran’s post 1979 Revolution economy under the Islamic Republic, with new material and related journal articles combined under one roof in a novel and reader friendly style. The volume starts with an original text, summarizing the development of the Iranian economy under five successive administrations, in five distinct phases. Following this are fifteen accompanying articles providing detailed information that expands on, and compliments, the discussion in the original material. Appropriate references on specific topics are made to each relevant article, ensuring the material is easily accessible to the reader. Topics discussed include public finance, employment, banking, petroleum, privatization, and the exchange rate. Full references are also made to US and universal economic sanctions and their effects, with the legacies of the Khatami and Ahmadinejad administrations also covered. This versatile title is designed to appeal to a vast readership. The hurried business executive or high government official, interested in a quick review of the subject matter may simply read the original text while think tank researchers, research fellows and students can take the time to read the supplementary articles and review what is related to the topic of their choosing.

Argentina s Economic Reforms of the 1990s in Contemporary and Historical Perspective

Author: Domingo Cavallo
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131736466X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Why has Argentina suffered so much political and economic instability? How could Argentina, once one of the wealthiest countries in the world, failed to meet its potential over decades? What lessons can we take from Argentina's successes and failures?? Argentina’s economy is?irresistibly?fascinating. Argentina's economic history-its crises and its triumphs cannot be explained in purely economic terms. Argentina's economic history can only be explained in the context of conflicts of interest, of politics, war and peace, boom and bust. Argentina's economic history is also intertwined with?ideological?struggles over the ideal society and the on-going struggle of ideas. ? The book comprises two distinct components: an economic history of Argentina from the Spanish colonial period to 1990, followed by a narrative by Domingo Cavallo on the last 25 years of reform and counter reform. Domingo Cavallo has been at the center of Argentina's economic and political debates for 40 years. He was one of the longest serving cabinet members since the return of democracy in 1983. He is uniquely qualified to help the reader make the connection between historical and current events through all these prisms. His daughter, Sonia Cavallo Runde is an economist specialized on public policy that currently teaches the politics of development policy. The two Cavallos offer academics and students of economics and finance a long form case study. This book also seeks to offer researchers and policymakers around the world with relevant lessons and insights to similar problems from the Argentine experience.

The Political Economy of Financial Transformation in Turkey

Author: Galip Yalman
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317364694
Format: PDF, Docs
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This volume provides a comprehensive study of Turkey’s financial transformation into one of the most dynamic, if not trouble-free, emerging capitalisms. While this financial evolution has underwritten Turkey’s dramatic economic growth, it has done so without ameliorating the persistently exploitative and unequal social structures that characterize neoliberalism today. This edited volume, written by an interdisciplinary range of political economists, critically examines Turkey’s financial transformation, contributing to debates on the nature of peripheral financialization. Eschewing economistic interpretations, The Political Economy of Financial Transformation in Turkey underscores both the quantitative significance of exponential growth in financial flows and investments, and the qualitative importance of the state’s institutional restructuring around financial imperatives. The book presents today’s reality as historically rooted. By understanding the choices made under the new Republic (from 1923 onwards), one can better locate the changes launched as a newly liberalizing society (since 1980). Likewise, the decisions made in response to Turkey’s 2001 financial crisis spurred a tectonic break in state–market–society financial relations. The waves of change have reached far and wide: from corporate strategies of accumulation and growth to small- and medium-sized enterprises’ strategies of financial survival; from how finance has penetrated the provisioning of housing to how households have become financialized. Put together, one grasps the complexity and historicity of the power of contemporary finance. One also sees that the changes made have not been class-neutral, but have entailed elevating the interests of major capital groups, particularly financial capital, above the interests of the poor and workers in Turkey. Nor are these changes constrained to its national borders, as what transpires domestically contributes to the making of a financialized world market. Through this ‘Made in Turkey’ approach the contributions in this volume thus challenge dominant understandings of financialization, which are derived from the advanced capitalisms, by sharing the specificity of emerging capitalisms such as Turkey.

Mexico under Misplaced Monopolies

Author: Francisco E. Gonzalez
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 135104673X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Mexicans and those who follow Mexican affairs were optimistic in 2000 when the country experienced its first alternation in government (from the Partido Revolucionario Institucional –PRI--to the Partido Acción Nacional--PAN) in more than 70 years. Moreover, the Mexican economy had been restructured in a more open, market-led direction in the course of the 1980s and 1990s. The outcomes of these dual transitions were expected to create a new type of politics that were representative and accountable to citizens, and an economy that would grow rapidly, as it was forced to modernize by facing international competition. Some two decades later, views about Mexico are much less sanguine, and for many the country continues to follow a bipolar politico-economic trajectory characterized by periods of enthusiasm and mania which are followed by crisis and depression. This book presents a new analytical framework and reviews in detail Mexico’s political and economic history since the 1980s. The explanation offered is based on the idea of ‘misplaced monopolies’--i.e. an open political regime but a weak, fragmented state, and an internationally open economy, but highly concentrated economic sectors and activity in the domestic sphere. Accordingly, sown in the course of the crisis-ridden 1980s and 1990s, misplaced monopolies grew roots and became core features of Mexico’s political economy in the 2000s and 2010s. The end result has been great concentration of wealth in a small number of hands, and the dramatic growth in brutal violence in many parts of the country. From this perspective, unless ‘misplaced monopolies’ are reversed, conditions will remain prone to crisis, polarization, and conflict in Mexico. This volume concludes by extrapolating the framework and placing Mexico in comparative perspective, alongside internationally important countries such as Brazil, China, India, and Russia. This is a highly original investigation that will interest people who follow Mexican politics and its economy. The analytical framework will be of use to analysts, scholars, and students of comparative political economy, democratization studies, market reforms, and security and conflict studies.

Housing Finance Policy in Emerging Markets

Author: Loic Chiquier
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821377515
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Housing finance markets have been changing dramatically in both emerging and developed economies. On the one hand, housing finance markets are expanding and represent a powerful engine for economic growth in many emerging economies. However, the unfolding sub-prime mortgage crisis highlights the risks and potential turbulence that this sector can introduce into the financial system when expanding without proper infrastructure and regulation. As housing finance keeps growing in emerging economies to match a rising demand for housing, new risk management approaches, business models, funding tools, and policy instruments can help. Yet many questions remain about the right balance between innovation and regulation, the extent of risks to the financial system, the appropriate role of the state to promote affordable housing, and the effects of the sub-prime crisis. This book provides a guide for policymakers dealing with housing finance in emerging markets. It highlights the prerequisites for an effective housing finance system; it lays out several policy alternatives and models of housing finance; and it explores the role of governments in expanding access to housing finance for lower-income households. There is no "best" model set out in this book. The aim is to provide a developmental roadmap that can be tailored and sequenced to each country's situation and timing.

Juggernaut

Author: Uri B. Dadush
Publisher: Carnegie Endowment
ISBN: 0870032615
Format: PDF, Docs
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Against the long sweep of economic history, the current moment is special. Living standards advanced so rapidly and across so many countries over the last decade that it is difficult to think of parallels ?even the deepest recession since the Great Depression did not halt progress. In Juggernaut, Uri Dadush and William Shaw explore the rise of developing countries and how they will reshape the economic landscape. Dadush and Shaw project that the global economy will more than triple over the next forty years and the advance of a large group of developing countries ?home to most of the world's population but seen as supplicants rather than trendsetters less than a generation ago ?will drive this improvement. The authors systematically examine the effects of this seismic shift on the main avenues of globalization ?trade, finance, migration, and the global commons ?and identify the policy options available to leaders in managing the transformation. In the years to come, the rise of emerging economies will likely enhance prosperity but also create great tensions that could slow the process or even stop it in its tracks. Juggernaut calls for leadership by the largest countries in managing these tensions, and underscores the need to cultivate a "global conscience."

The Economics of Public Health Care Reform in Advanced and Emerging Economies

Author: David Coady
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475583788
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Health care reform will be a key fiscal policy challenge in both advanced and emerging economies in coming years. In the advanced economies, the health sector has been one of the main drivers of government expenditure, accounting for about half of the rise in total spending over the past forty years. These spending pressures are expected to intensify over the next two decades, reflecting the aging of the population, income growth, and continued technological innovations in health care. These spending increases will come at a time when countries need to undertake fiscal consolidation to reduce public debt ratios in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the emerging economies, health care reform is also a key issue, given substantial lags in health indicators and limited fiscal resources. For these economies, the challenge will be to expand public coverage without undermining fiscal sustainability. This book provides new insights into these challenges and potential policy responses, with cross-country analysis and case studies.

Iran and the Global Economy

Author: Parvin Alizadeh
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317963008
Format: PDF, Docs
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The relationship between religion and the state has entered a new phase ever since the Iranian Revolution more than three decades ago. The recent mass uprisings against autocratic rulers in the Arab world have highlighted the potency of Islamist forces in post-revolutionary societies in the region, a force arguably unlocked first by Iran’s version of the ‘spring’ three decades ago. The economic ramifications of these uprisings are of special interest at a time when the possibility of the creation of Islamic states can have implications for their economic policy and performance again. A study of the Iranian experience in itself can offer rare insights whether for its own features and characteristics or for its possible lessons and implications for recent events in the region. This book is concerned with the economic aspects and consequences of the Iranian Revolution in general and its interaction with the international economy in particular. Many studies have to date dealt with Iran’s economic challenges, policies and performance in the post-revolutionary period but its interaction with the international economy – although of growing importance – has not received sufficient attention. The contributions in this volume by experts in the field address ways in which in the span of three decades, Iran’s economy has evolved from a strong aspiration to develop an ‘independent economy’ to grappling with debilitating international economic sanctions.

Challenges of Growth and Globalization in the Middle East and North Africa

Author: Hamid Reza Davoodi
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1463919387
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) is an economically diverse region. Despite undertaking economic reforms in many countries, and having considerable success in avoiding crises and achieving macroeconomic stability, the region's economic performance in the past 30 years has been below potential. This paper takes stock of the region's relatively weak performance, explores the reasons for this out come, and proposes an agenda for urgent reforms.

Emerging Capital Markets and Globalization

Author: Augusto de la Torre
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821365441
Format: PDF, ePub
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Back in the early 1990s, economists and policy makers had high expectations about the prospects for domestic capital market development in emerging economies, particularly in Latin America. Unfortunately, they are now faced with disheartening results. Stock and bond markets remain illiquid and segmented. Debt is concentrated at the short end of the maturity spectrum and denominated in foreign currency, exposing countries to maturity and currency risk. Capital markets in Latin America look particularly underdeveloped when considering the many efforts undertaken to improve the macroeconomic environment and to reform the institutions believed to foster capital market development. The disappointing performance has made conventional policy recommendations questionable, at best. 'Emerging Capital Markets and Globalization' analyzes where we stand and where we are heading on capital market development. First, it takes stock of the state and evolution of Latin American capital markets and related reforms over time and relative to other countries. Second, it analyzes the factors related to the development of capital markets, with particular interest on measuring the impact of reforms. And third, in light of this analysis, it discusses the prospects for capital market development in Latin America and emerging economies and the implications for the reform agenda.