The Limits to Scarcity

Author: Lyla Mehta
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136538941
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Scarcity is considered a ubiquitous feature of the human condition. It underpins much of modern economics and is widely used as an explanation for social organisation, social conflict and the resource crunch confronting humanity's survival on the planet. It is made out to be an all-pervasive fact of our lives - be it of housing, food, water or oil. But has the conception of scarcity been politicized, naturalized, and universalized in academic and policy debates? Has overhasty recourse to scarcity evoked a standard set of market, institutional and technological solutions which have blocked out political contestations, overlooking access as a legitimate focus for academic debates as well as policies and interventions? Theoretical and empirical chapters by leading academics and scholar-activists grapple with these issues by questioning scarcity's taken-for-granted nature. They examine scarcity debates across three of the most important resources - food, water and energy - and their implications for theory, institutional arrangements, policy responses and innovation systems. The book looks at how scarcity has emerged as a totalizing discourse in both the North and South. The 'scare' of scarcity has led to scarcity emerging as a political strategy for powerful groups. Aggregate numbers and physical quantities are trusted, while local knowledges and experiences of scarcity that identify problems more accurately and specifically are ignored. Science and technology are expected to provide 'solutions', but such expectations embody a multitude of unexamined assumptions about the nature of the 'problem', about the technologies and about the institutional arrangements put forward as a 'fix.' Through this examination the authors demonstrate that scarcity is not a natural condition: the problem lies in how we see scarcity and the ways in which it is socially generated.

Policy Legitimacy Science and Political Authority

Author: Michael Heazle
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317420020
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Voters expect their elected representatives to pursue good policy and presume this will be securely founded on the best available knowledge. Yet when representatives emphasize their reliance on expert knowledge, they seem to defer to people whose authority derives, not politically from the sovereign people, but from the presumed objective status of their disciplinary bases. This book examines the tensions between political authority and expert authority in the formation of public policy in liberal democracies. It aims to illustrate and better understand the nature of these tensions rather than to argue specific ways of resolving them. The various chapters explore the complexity of interaction between the two forms of authority in different policy domains in order to identify both common elements and differences. The policy domains covered include: climate geoengineering discourses; environmental health; biotechnology; nuclear power; whaling; economic management; and the use of force. This volume will appeal to researchers and to convenors of post-graduate courses in the fields of policy studies, foreign policy decision-making, political science, environmental studies, democratic system studies, and science policy studies.

Systems Thinking for Geoengineering Policy

Author: Robert Chris
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317554884
Format: PDF
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Even by the scientists most closely associated with it, geoengineering – the deliberate intervention in the climate at global scale to mitigate the effects of climate change – is perceived to be risky. For all its potential benefits, there are robust differences of opinion over the wisdom of such an intervention. Systems Thinking for Geoengineering Policy is the first book to theorise geoengineering in terms of complex adaptive systems theory and to argue for the theoretical imperative of adaptive management as the default methodology for an effective low risk means of confronting the inescapable uncertainty and surprise that characterise potential climate futures. The book illustrates how a shift from the conventional Enlightenment paradigm of linear reductionist thinking, in favour of systems thinking, would promote policies that are robust against the widest range of plausible futures rather than optimal only for the most likely, and also unlock the policy paralysis caused by making long term predictions of policy outcomes a prior condition for policy formulation. It also offers some systems driven reflections on a global governance network for geoengineering. This book is a valuable resource for all those with an interest in climate change policy, geoengineering, and CAS theory, including academics, under- and postgraduate students and policymakers.

The Politics of Carbon Markets

Author: Benjamin Stephan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134590121
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The carbon markets are in the middle of a fundamental crisis - a crisis marked by collapsing prices, fleeing actors, and ever increasing greenhouse gas levels. Yet carbon trading remains at the heart of global attempts to respond to climate change. Not only this, but markets continue to proliferate - particularly in the Global South. The Politics of Carbon Markets helps to make sense of this paradox and brings two urgently needed insights to the analysis of carbon markets. First, the markets must be understood in relation to the politics involved in their development, maintenance and opposition. Second, this politics is multiform and pervasive. Implementation of new techniques and measuring tools, policy development and contestation, and the structuring context of institutional settings and macro-social forces all involve a variety of political actors and create new forms of political agency. The contributions study the total extent of the carbon markets, from their prehistory to their contemporary expansion and wider impacts. This wide-ranging political perspective on the carbon markets is invaluable to those studying and interested in ecological markets, climate change governance and environmental politics.

Wohlstand ohne Wachstum

Author: Tim Jackson
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783865814142
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Unsere gesamte Wirtschaftsordnung baut auf ewigem Wachstum auf - aber nun brauchen wir einen anderen Motor, sagt Tim Jackson. In seinem Standardwerk zur Wachstumsdebatte fordert der britische Ökonom nicht weniger als eine neue Wirtschaftsordnung, die auf einem anderen Wohlstandsbegriff beruht.

Weltarmut und Menschenrechte

Author: Thomas Pogge
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783111740164
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Thomas Pogge s book explains why so many of the wealthy believe that they have no responsibility for the elimination of poverty even though a degree of income transfer seems morally required. The theories of the wealthy are seemingly disconnected from poverty in other countries. Pogge dispatches with this illusion and suggests a realistic standard of global economic justice."

Soziologische Aufkl rung 1

Author: Niklas Luhmann
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3322969843
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Die Soziologie blickt, was praktische Verwendung und theoretische Konsolidierung anlangt, in eine offene, höchst ungewisse Zukunft. All ihren Beständen und jedem ihrer Einsätze fehlt die Gewißheit, dauerhafte Erkenntnis zu sein. Das gilt selbst für empirische Forschung, besonders aber für rein theoretische Überlegungen. In dieser Lage wäre ein Verzicht auf zusammenfassende Theorie verhängnisvoll, aber es emp fiehlt sich, solche Theorie zunächst einmal ins Unreine zu schreiben. Dafür schien mir, über eine Reihe von Jahren hinweg, der Zeitschriftenaufsatz die geeignete Form der Mitteilung zu sein. Die Zahl und die Zerstreuung solcher Aufsätze erschweren jedoch den Zugang, den Überblick, die Kontrolle und die Kritik. Diesen Mangel soll die hiermit vorgelegte Sammlung beheben. Im Sinne dieser Zweckbestimmung lag es, von einer Überarbeitung der bereits gedruckten Aufsätze abzusehen. So blieben Überschneidungen stehen und auch Un ebenheiten in der Formulierung, die bei einem Neuentwurf vermeidbar wären. Es war jedoch notwendig und sinnvoll, eine Auswahl zu treffen, und daraus ergab sich die Anregung, zur Abrundung zwei neue Aufsätze zu schreiben. Ausgewählt habe ich Beiträge zur allgemeinen theoretischen Soziologie und zur Theorie der Gesellschaft und ihrer primären Teilsysteme. Unter diesem Gesichtspunkt war es erforderlich, einen Beitrag zur Theorie der Gesellschaft neu zu verfassen, da die bereits veröffentlichten Gedanken zu diesem Thema zu sehr vom jeweiligen Anlaß der Publikation geprägt waren. Und ferner schien es mir sich zu lohnen, die in Ansätzen skizzierte theoretische Konzeption auch für den Fall des Sozialsystems der Wirtschaft durchzuspielen.

Wenn die Fl sse versiegen

Author: Fred Pearce
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783888974717
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Alle Welt redet von schwindenden Energieressourcen; dass sich daneben eine ungleich gravierendere Wasserkrise anbahnt, ist bis jetzt kaum ins Bewusstsein gedrungen. Selbst wer umweltbewusst zu Hause Wasser spart, weiss selten, wieviel ”virtuelles Wasser“ er über Nahrung und Kleidung tatsächlich verbraucht: 5.000 Liter Wasser sind nötig, um ein Kilo Reis zu erzeugen, 11.000 Liter für das Rindfleisch eines Hamburgers, unglaubliche 20.000 Liter stecken in 1 kg Kaffeepulver. Kein Wunder, dass sich die Flüsse der Welt in atemberaubendem Tempo leeren, während durch Überregulierung andererseits die Flutgefahr dramatisch steigt. Längst weiss man, dass gigantomanische Bewässerungs- und Staudammprojekte eine enorme ökologische und ökonomische Verschwendung darstellen. Doch schon geht man weltweit dazu über, auch die unterirdischen Wasserreservoirs leer zu pumpen. Ressourcenkriege um Wasser bahnen sich an, denn: Ohne Öl können wir zur Not leben, ohne Wasser sicher nicht. Fred Pearces Berichte lesen sich wie Kriminalgeschichten und geben zugleich einen umfassenden Überblick über die Wasserkrise und ihre Auswirkungen.