Building the Judiciary

Author: Justin Crowe
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400842573
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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How did the federal judiciary transcend early limitations to become a powerful institution of American governance? How did the Supreme Court move from political irrelevance to political centrality? Building the Judiciary uncovers the causes and consequences of judicial institution-building in the United States from the commencement of the new government in 1789 through the close of the twentieth century. Explaining why and how the federal judiciary became an independent, autonomous, and powerful political institution, Justin Crowe moves away from the notion that the judiciary is exceptional in the scheme of American politics, illustrating instead how it is subject to the same architectonic politics as other political institutions. Arguing that judicial institution-building is fundamentally based on a series of contested questions regarding institutional design and delegation, Crowe develops a theory to explain why political actors seek to build the judiciary and the conditions under which they are successful. He both demonstrates how the motivations of institution-builders ranged from substantive policy to partisan and electoral politics to judicial performance, and details how reform was often provoked by substantial changes in the political universe or transformational entrepreneurship by political leaders. Embedding case studies of landmark institution-building episodes within a contextual understanding of each era under consideration, Crowe presents a historically rich narrative that offers analytically grounded explanations for why judicial institution-building was pursued, how it was accomplished, and what--in the broader scheme of American constitutional democracy--it achieved.

The Litigation State

Author: Sean Farhang
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400836789
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Of the 1.65 million lawsuits enforcing federal laws over the past decade, 3 percent were prosecuted by the federal government, while 97 percent were litigated by private parties. When and why did private plaintiff-driven litigation become a dominant model for enforcing federal regulation? The Litigation State shows how government legislation created the nation's reliance upon private litigation, and investigates why Congress would choose to mobilize, through statutory design, private lawsuits to implement federal statutes. Sean Farhang argues that Congress deliberately cultivates such private lawsuits partly as a means of enforcing its will over the resistance of opposing presidents. Farhang reveals that private lawsuits, functioning as an enforcement resource, are a profoundly important component of American state capacity. He demonstrates how the distinctive institutional structure of the American state--particularly conflict between Congress and the president over control of the bureaucracy--encourages Congress to incentivize private lawsuits. Congress thereby achieves regulatory aims through a decentralized army of private lawyers, rather than by well-staffed bureaucracies under the president's influence. The historical development of ideological polarization between Congress and the president since the late 1960s has been a powerful cause of the explosion of private lawsuits enforcing federal law over the same period. Using data from many policy areas spanning the twentieth century, and historical analysis focused on civil rights, The Litigation State investigates how American political institutions shape the strategic design of legislation to mobilize private lawsuits for policy implementation.

Looking for Rights in All the Wrong Places

Author: Emily Zackin
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400846277
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Unlike many national constitutions, which contain explicit positive rights to such things as education, a living wage, and a healthful environment, the U.S. Bill of Rights appears to contain only a long list of prohibitions on government. American constitutional rights, we are often told, protect people only from an overbearing government, but give no explicit guarantees of governmental help. Looking for Rights in All the Wrong Places argues that we have fundamentally misunderstood the American rights tradition. The United States actually has a long history of enshrining positive rights in its constitutional law, but these rights have been overlooked simply because they are not in the federal Constitution. Emily Zackin shows how they instead have been included in America's state constitutions, in large part because state governments, not the federal government, have long been primarily responsible for crafting American social policy. Although state constitutions, seemingly mired in trivial detail, can look like pale imitations of their federal counterpart, they have been sites of serious debate, reflect national concerns, and enshrine choices about fundamental values. Zackin looks in depth at the history of education, labor, and environmental reform, explaining why America's activists targeted state constitutions in their struggles for government protection from the hazards of life under capitalism. Shedding much-needed light on the variety of reasons that activists pursued the creation of new state-level rights, Looking for Rights in All the Wrong Places challenges us to rethink our most basic assumptions about the American constitutional tradition.

Gesammelte Schriften in deutscher Sprache

Author: Friedrich A. von Hayek
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161526442
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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English summary: The Austrian economist and social philosopher Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992), winner of the 1974 Nobel Prize, is widely regarded as one of the most influential thinkers in the 20th century's tradition of classical liberalism. This volume includes Hayek's core contributions to the theory of money and the trade cycle, Geldtheorie und Konjunkturtheorie (1929) and Preise und Produktion(1931), as well as his later reactions to criticism. As a common feature, Hayek consistently identifies an inflationary-induced boom as the crucial cause of crisis and rejects expansionary monetary or fiscal policies as a remedy. In this vein, he fights from the outset against a "macroeconomic" approach to problems of the trade cycle and in particular against economic policies based on Keynesian foundations. German description: Der 1974 mit dem Nobelpreis ausgezeichnete Okonom und Sozialphilosoph Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992) gilt weithin als einer der bedeutendsten Denker des Liberalismus im 20. Jahrhundert. Der vorliegende Band enthalt neben den zwei grundlegenden Monographien, Geldtheorie und Konjunkturtheorie (1929) und Preise und Produktion (1931), auch spatere weiterfuhrende Beitrage, in denen er sich mit Kritik auseinandersetzt und seine Analyse erweitert. Allen diesen Arbeiten gemeinsam ist die Identifikation von Inflation als der Ursache einer kunstlichen Wirtschaftsbelebung, die unvermeidlich in die Krise fuhren muss, und die weitgehende Ablehnung expansiver geld- und finanzpolitischer Massnahmen zur Krisenbekampfung. Von allem Anfang an sieht sich Hayek demgemass als prononcierten Gegner des theoretischen Ansatzes einer "Makrookonomik" und insbesondere des Keynesianismus als wirtschaftspolitischem Programm.

Die Architektur der M rkte

Author: Neil Fligstein
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 9783531159645
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Die Architektur der Märkte fasst grundlegende Schriften Neil Fligsteins aus verschiedenen Arbeitsphasen zusammen, in denen er eine wirtschaftssoziologische Sicht auf kapitalistische Gesellschaften entwickelt hat. Fligstein hat mit der These von der sozialen Konstruktion oder Architektur von Märkten auf die Bedeutung des Staates und der modernen Unternehmen aufmerksam gemacht und die institutionelle Rahmung des Wirtschaftslebens in den Mittelpunkt gerückt. Der Band hat nach seinem Erscheinen für große Aufmerksamkeit gesorgt und gilt zu Recht als eine der wegweisenden Aufsatzsammlungen der neueren Wirtschaftssoziologie.