The Marvelous Learning Animal

Author: Arthur W. Staats
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781616145972
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
An exploration of the human capacity for learning examines the subject's vast depths, which have not been fully examined or understood, presenting a new theory of human evolution and suggestions for better explaining behavior.

Critical Thinking for Helping Professionals

Author: Eileen Gambrill
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190297301
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Critical thinking values, skills, and knowledge are integral to evidence-based practice in the helping professions. On a daily basis, practitioners must be able and willing to think critically about decisions that affect clients' lives, while detecting and avoiding misleading framing of problems that may harm clients but contribute to the profit of involved industries (e.g. ignoring environmental sources of distress and focusing on characteristics of clients). Critical Thinking for Helping Professionals, Fourth Edition is designed to engage readers as active participants in 37 exercises designed to hone critical thinking skills and offer practice in critically appraising different kinds of research, carrying out the steps in the process of evidence-based practice, reviewing the extent to which clients are involved as informed participants, and reviewing excuses used for offering poor services .For students in social work, nursing, counseling, and psychology, this new edition offers entertaining and thought-provoking ways to sharpen decision making skills.

How and Why Thoughts Change

Author: Ian M. Evans
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199380848
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Cognitive therapy, a core approach within a collection of psychotherapeutic techniques known as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), is fundamentally about changing peoples' thoughts-helping them overcome difficulties by recognizing and changing dysfunctional thinking styles. Among other strategies, it requires encouraging the development of skills for rehearsing new habits of thought, modifying biases in judging and interpreting social and emotional information, and for testing assumptions underlying dysfunctional and negative, distorted thinking. In How and Why Thoughts Change, Dr. Ian Evans deconstructs the nature of cognitive therapy by examining the cognitive element of CBT, that is, how and why thoughts change behavior and emotion. There are a number of different approaches to cognitive therapy, including the classic Beck approach, the late Albert Ellis's rational-emotive psychotherapy, Young's schema-focused therapy, and newer varieties such as mindfulness training, Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), and problem-solving strategies. Evans identifies the common principles underlying these methods, attempts to integrate them, and makes suggestions as to how our current cognitive therapies might be improved. He draws on a broad survey of contemporary research on basic cognitive processes and integrates these with therapeutic approaches. While it may seem obvious that how and what we think determines how and in what manner we behave, the relationship between thought and action is not a simple one. Evans addresses questions such as: What is the difference between a thought and a belief? How do we find the cause of a thought? And can it really be that thought causes behavior and emotion, or could it be the other way around? In a reader-friendly style that avoids jargon, this innovative book answers some pertinent questions about cognitive therapy in a way that clarifies exactly how and why thoughts change. Evans demonstrates that understanding these concepts is a linchpin to providing and improving therapy for clients.

Great Myths of Child Development

Author: Stephen Hupp
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118521226
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Great Myths of Child Development reveals the latest evidence–based science behind the myths and misconceptions about the developing child. Shatters the most commonly–held child development myths Reveals the science behind such topical issues as twin–telepathy, sex–prediction, and imaginary friends Covers hot–button issues like childhood vaccines, spankings, time–outs, and breastfeeding of older children Features numerous pop culture references and examples drawn from popular TV shows and movies, such as Duck Dynasty, Modern Family and Mad Men Points to a wealth of supplementary resources for interested parents from evidence–based treatments and self–help books to relevant websites

The Unpredictable Species

Author: Philip Lieberman
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400846706
Format: PDF
Download Now
The Unpredictable Species argues that the human brain evolved in a way that enhances our cognitive flexibility and capacity for innovation and imitation. In doing so, the book challenges the central claim of evolutionary psychology that we are locked into predictable patterns of behavior that were fixed by genes, and refutes the claim that language is innate. Philip Lieberman builds his case with evidence from neuroscience, genetics, and physical anthropology, showing how our basal ganglia--structures deep within the brain whose origins predate the dinosaurs--came to play a key role in human creativity. He demonstrates how the transfer of information in these structures was enhanced by genetic mutation and evolution, giving rise to supercharged neural circuits linking activity in different parts of the brain. Human invention, expressed in different epochs and locales in the form of stone tools, digital computers, new art forms, complex civilizations--even the latest fashions--stems from these supercharged circuits. The Unpredictable Species boldly upends scientifically controversial yet popular beliefs about how our brains actually work. Along the way, this compelling book provides insights into a host of topics related to human cognition, including associative learning, epigenetics, the skills required to be a samurai, and the causes of cognitive confusion on Mount Everest and of Parkinson's disease.

Good Natured

Author: Frans B. M. DE WAAL
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674033175
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now

Animals in Translation

Author: Temple Grandin
Publisher: SUNY Press
ISBN: 9781439130841
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Temple Grandin's Animals in Translation speaks in the clear voice of a woman who emerged from the other side of autism, bringing with her an extraordinary message about how animals think and feel. Temple's professional training as an animal scientist and her history as a person with autism have given her a perspective like that of no other expert in the field. Standing at the intersection of autism and animals, she offers unparalleled observations and groundbreaking ideas about both. Autistic people can often think the way animals think -- in fact, Grandin and co-author Catherine Johnson see autism as a kind of way station on the road from animals to humans -- putting autistic people in the perfect position to translate "animal talk." Temple is a faithful guide into their world, exploring animal pain, fear, aggression, love, friendship, communication, learning, and, yes, even animal genius. Not only are animals much smarter than anyone ever imagined, in some cases animals are out-and-out brilliant. The sweep of Animals in Translation is immense, merging an animal scientist's thirty years of study with her keen perceptions as a person with autism -- Temple sees what others cannot. Among its provocative ideas, the book: argues that language is not a requirement for consciousness -- and that animals do have consciousness applies the autism theory of "hyper-specificity" to animals, showing that animals and autistic people are so sensitive to detail that they "can't see the forest for the trees" -- a talent as well as a "deficit" explores the "interpreter" in the normal human brain that filters out detail, leaving people blind to much of the reality that surrounds them -- a reality animals and autistic people see, sometimes all too clearly explains how animals have "superhuman" skills: animals have animal genius compares animals to autistic savants, declaring that animals may in fact be autistic savants, with special forms of genius that normal people do not possess and sometimes cannot even see examines how humans and animals use their emotions to think, to decide, and even to predict the future reveals the remarkable abilities of handicapped people and animals maintains that the single worst thing you can do to an animal is to make it feel afraid Temple Grandin is like no other author on the subject of animals because of her training and because of her autism: understanding animals is in her blood and in her bones.

Animals Make Us Human

Author: Temple Grandin
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780547248233
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Drawing on the latest scientific research and her own work with animals, the author discusses the emotional needs of animals and how to fulfill them, challenging common myths about animal emotions, mental stimulation, and emotional well-being.

Artificial Animals for Computer Animation

Author: Xiaoyuan Tu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540465936
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
After nearly half a century of research, the Holy Grail of the ?eld of art- cial intelligence (AI) remains a comprehensive computational model capable of emulating the marvelous abilities of animals, including locomotion, p- ception, behavior, manipulation, learning, and cognition. The comprehensive modeling of higher animals –humans and other primates –remains elusive; However, the research documented in this monograph achieves nothing less than a functional computer model of certain species of lower animals that are by no means trivial in their complexity. Reported herein is the 1996 ACM Doctoral Dissertation Award winning work of Xiaoyuan Tu, which she carried out in the Department of Computer Science at the University of Toronto. Tu presents “arti?cial ?shes”, a rema- able computational model of familiar marine animals in their natural habitat. Originally conceived in the context of computer graphics, Tu’s is to date the only PhD dissertation from this major sub?eld of computer science (and the only thesis from a Canadian university) to win the coveted ACM award.

Social Learning and Innovation in Contemporary Hunter Gatherers

Author: Hideaki Terashima
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 4431559973
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This is the first book to examine social learning and innovation in hunter–gatherers from around the world. More is known about social learning in chimpanzees and nonhuman primates than is known about social learning in hunter–gatherers, a way of life that characterized most of human history. The book describes diverse patterns of learning and teaching behaviors in contemporary hunter–gatherers from the perspectives of cultural anthropology, ecological anthropology, biological anthropology, and developmental psychology. The book addresses several theoretical issues including the learning hypothesis which suggests that the fate of Homo sapiens and Neanderthals in the last glacial period might have been due to the differences in learning ability. It has been unequivocally claimed that social learning is intrinsically important for human beings; however, the characteristics of human learning remain under a dense fog despite innumerable studies with children from urban–industrial cultures. Controversy continues on problems such as: do hunter–gatherers teach? If so, what types of teaching occur, who does it, how often, under what contexts, and so on. The book explores the most basic and intrinsic aspects of social learning as well as the foundation of innovative activities in everyday activities of contemporary hunter–gatherer people across the earth. The book examines how hunter-gatherer core values, such as gender and age egalitarianism and extensive sharing of food and childcare are transmitted and acquired by children. Chapters are grouped into five sections: 1) theoretical perspectives of learning in hunter–gatherers, 2) modes and processes of social learning in hunter–gatherers, 3) innovation and cumulative culture, 4) play and other cultural contexts of social learning and innovation, 5) biological contexts of learning and innovation. Ideas and concepts based on the data gathered through an intensive fieldwork by the authors will give much insight into the mechanisms and meanings of learning and education in modern humans.