The Matching Law

Author: Michael Davison
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317272455
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Originally published in 1988, the purpose of this title was to present a coherent summary of the previous 30 years’ of research on the way in which animals and humans distribute their behaviour between alternative sources of reinforcement. There were three reasons why the book was needed at the time. First, it makes use of the empirical results available, something only partially present in many theories of the time. Second, as a general source of information to gain understanding of the scope of research on behaviour allocation. Third, a text was needed that described the techniques of experimental design and data analysis in this area.

Cognitive Science and the Social

Author: Stephen P. Turner
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351180509
Format: PDF
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The rise of cognitive neuroscience is the most important scientific and intellectual development of the last thirty years. Findings pour forth, and major initiatives for brain research continue. The social sciences have responded to this development slowly--for good reasons. The implications of particular controversial findings, such as the discovery of mirror neurons, have been ambiguous, controversial within neuroscience itself, and difficult to integrate with conventional social science. Yet many of these findings, such as those of experimental neuro-economics, pose very direct challenges to standard social science. At the same time, however, the known facts of social science, for example about linguistic and moral diversity, pose a significant challenge to standard neuroscience approaches, which tend to focus on "universal" aspects of human and animal cognition. A serious encounter between cognitive neuroscience and social science is likely to be challenging, and transformative, for both parties. Although a literature has developed on proposals to integrate neuroscience and social science, these proposals go in divergent directions. None of them has a developed conception of social life. This book surveys these issues, introduces the basic alternative conceptions both of the mental world and the social world, and show how, with sufficient modification, they can be fit together in plausible ways. The book is not a "new theory " of anything, but rather an exploration of the critical issues that relate to the social aspects of cognition which expands the topic from the social neuroscience of immediate interpersonal interaction to the whole range of places where social variation interacts with the cognitive. The focus is on the conceptual problems produced by any attempt to take these issues seriously, and also on the new resources and considerations relevant to doing so. But it is also on the need for a revision of social theoretical concepts in order to utilize these resources. The book points to some conclusions, especially about how the process of what was known as socialization needs to be understood in cognitive science friendly terms. But there is no attempt to resolve the underlying issues within cognitive science, which will doubtless persist.

The Comprehension of Jokes

Author: Graeme Ritchie
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351232738
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Comprehension of Jokes consolidates and develops the tradition of analysing jokes, by de?ning a framework of concepts which are suited to capturing what happens when someone understands a joke. The collection of concepts presented improves upon past work on joke analysis, outlining a simple model of text comprehension which supports all the assumptions necessary for a model of joke-understanding. This proposed framework encompasses and integrates a relatively wide range of disparate factors, including incongruity, superiority, and impropriety. Written by an expert in the field of humour, it provides a conceptual basis which will help to map out the landscape of joke comprehension. The book draws on past suggestions in many areas, primarily philosophy, psychology, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. Current theories of how people understand non-humorous texts offer some important ideas, such as the need for representations of differing beliefs about the world, or the way that predictions may occur during the understanding of a text. The framework improves the clarity and coherence of some existing theoretical proposals and combines these ideas into a well-defined way of describing how a person understands a newly-encountered joke. All this is illustrated using typical textual jokes, some analysed in considerable detail. The book enables hypotheses about why jokes are funny to be stated more precisely and compared more easily, and should contribute to the development of a fuller cognitive model of joke comprehension. The Comprehension of Jokes will be of great interest to academics and postgraduate students in humour research, as well as those in disciplines like linguistics, psychology, and cognitive science who wish to explore the ?eld of jokes and humour.

Learning and Behavior Active Learning Edition

Author: Paul Chance
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1111799792
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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LEARNING AND BEHAVIOR: ACTIVE LEARNING EDITION, Sixth Edition, looks at learning as an evolutionary mechanism. Chance's book is stimulating, interactive, and filled with high-interest queries and examples. Based on the theme that learning is a biological mechanism that aids survival, this book embraces a scientific approach to behavior but is written in a lucid, clear language. The reconceived built-in workbook, which is included at the back of every text, has been pared down to be more approachable and less time-consuming for students, with a greater focus on the core concepts and vocabulary presented in the text. Probing essay questions and examples encourage students to draw connections between topics and apply the material to their own lives. Perforated pages allow professors to collect completed workbook assignments easily. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Naturalizing Logico Mathematical Knowledge

Author: Sorin Bangu
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351998447
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is meant as a part of the larger contemporary philosophical project of naturalizing logico-mathematical knowledge, and addresses the key question that motivates most of the work in this field: What is philosophically relevant about the nature of logico-mathematical knowledge in recent research in psychology and cognitive science? The question about this distinctive kind of knowledge is rooted in Plato’s dialogues, and virtually all major philosophers have expressed interest in it. The essays in this collection tackle this important philosophical query from the perspective of the modern sciences of cognition, namely cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Naturalizing Logico-Mathematical Knowledge contributes to consolidating a new, emerging direction in the philosophy of mathematics, which, while keeping the traditional concerns of this sub-discipline in sight, aims to engage with them in a scientifically-informed manner. A subsequent aim is to signal the philosophers’ willingness to enter into a fruitful dialogue with the community of cognitive scientists and psychologists by examining their methods and interpretive strategies.

International Encyclopedia of Social Behavioral Sciences

Author:
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0080548059
Format: PDF
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This Encyclopedia is the first attempt in a generation to map the social and behavioral sciences on a grand scale. Not since the publication in 1968 of the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, edited by David L. Sills, has there been such an ambitious project to describe the state of the art in all the fields encompassed within the social and behavioral sciences. Available in both print (26 volumes) and online editions, it comprises 4,000 articles, commissioned by 52 Section Editors, and includes 90,000 bibliographic references as well as comprehensive name and subject indexes.

The Cognitive Neuropsychology of D j Vu

Author: Chris Moulin
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315524910
Format: PDF, Docs
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Déjà vu is one of the most complex and subjective of all memory phenomena. It is an infrequent and striking mental experience, where the feeling of familiarity is combined with the knowledge that this feeling is false. While until recently it was an aspect of memory largely overlooked by mainstream cognitive psychology, this book brings together the growing scientific literature on déjà vu, making the case for it as a metacognitive phenomenon. The Cognitive Neuropsychology of Déjà Vu reviews clinical, experimental and neuroimaging methods, focusing on how memory disorders and neurological dysfunction relate to the experience. Examining déjà vu as a memory phenomenon, Chris Moulin explores how the experience of déjà vu in special populations, such as healthy aging or those with schizophrenia, provides new insights into understanding this phenomenon. He considers the extensive data on déjà vu in people with epilepsy, dementia and other neurological conditions, assessing neuropsychological theories of déjà vu formation. Essential reading for all students and researchers interested in memory disorders, this valuable book presents the case for déjà vu as a ‘healthy’ phenomenon only experienced by people with sufficient cognitive resources to oppose and detect the false feeling of familiarity.

Cognitive Science

Author: Jay Friedenberg
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1483347427
Format: PDF, Docs
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In Cognitive Science 3e Friedenberg and Silverman provide a solid understanding of the major theoretical and empirical contributions of cognitive science. Their text, thoroughly updated for this new third edition, describes the major theories of mind as well as the major experimental results that have emerged within each cognitive science discipline. Throughout history, different fields of inquiry have attempted to understand the great mystery of mind and answer questions like: What is the mind? How do we see, think, and remember? Can we create machines that are conscious and capable of self-awareness? This books examines these questions and many more. Focusing on the approach of a particular cognitive science field in each chapter, the authors describe its methodology, theoretical perspective, and findings and then offer a critical evaluation of the field. Features: Offers a wide-ranging, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary introduction to the field of cognitive science and issues of mind. Interdisciplinary Crossroads” sections at the end of each chapter focus on research topics that have been investigated from multiple perspectives, helping students to understand the link between varying disciplines and cognitive science. End-of-chapter “Summing Up” sections provide a concise summary of the major points addressed in each chapter to facilitate student comprehension and exam preparation “Explore More” sections link students to the Student Study Site where the authors have provided activities to help students more quickly master course content and prepare for examinations Supplements: A password-protected Instructor’s Resource contains PowerPoint lectures, a test bank and other pedagogical material.The book's Study Site features Web links, E-flash cards, and interactive quizzes.

Elements of Moral Cognition

Author: John Mikhail
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521855780
Format: PDF, ePub
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John Mikhail explores whether moral psychology is usefully modelled on aspects of Universal Grammar.