The Missing Link in Cognition

Author: Herbert S. Terrace
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195347609
Format: PDF
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Are humans unique in having self-reflective consciousness? Or can precursors to this central form of human consciousness be found in non-human species? The Missing Link in Cognition brings together a diverse group of researchers who have been investigating this question from a variety of perspectives, including the extent to which non-human primates, and, indeed, young children, have consciousness, a sense of self, thought process, metacognitions, and representations. Some of the participants--Kitcher, Higgins, Nelson, and Tulving--argue that these types of cognitive abilities are uniquely human, whereas others--Call, Hampton, Kinsbourne, Menzel, Metcalfe, Schwartz, Smith, and Terrace--are convinced that at least the precursors to self-reflective consciousness exist in non-human primates. Their debate focuses primarily on the underpinnings of consciousness. Some of the participants believe that consciousness depends on representational thought and on the mental manipulation of such representations. Is representational thought enough to ensure consciousness, or does one need more? If one needs more, exactly what is needed? Is reflection upon the representations, that is, metacognition, the link? Does a realization of the contingencies, that is, "knowing that," in Gilbert Ryle's terminology, ensure that a person or an animal is conscious? Is true episodic memory needed for consciousness, and if so, do any animals have it? Is it possible to have episodic memory or, indeed, any self-reflective processing, without language? Other participants believe that consciousness is inextricably intertwined with a sense of self or self-awareness. From where does this sense of self or self-awareness arise? Some of the participants believe that it develops only through the use of language and the narrative form. If it does develop in this way, what about claims of a sense of self or self-awareness in non-human animals? Others believe that the autobiographical record implied by episodic memory is fundamental. To what extent must non-human animals have the linguistic, metacognitive, and/or representational abilities to develop a sense of self or self-awareness? These and other related concerns are crucial in this volume's lively debate over the nature of the missing cognitive link, and whether gorillas, chimps, or other species might be more like humans than many have supposed.

Handbook of Metamemory and Memory

Author: John Dunlosky
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136648550
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Examines the interplay between metamemory and memory. This handbook discusses cutting-edge theory and research that, in some way, showcases the symbiotic relationship between metamemory and memory. It supports a central thesis that a complete understanding of either metamemory or memory is not possible without investigating their mutual influence.

Computer After Me The Awareness And Self awareness In Autonomic Systems

Author: Pitt Jeremy
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783264195
Format: PDF
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We are increasingly seeing computer systems which are expected to function without operator intervention. This is perhaps acceptable for running computer networks or traffic lights; however, we are now seeing computer systems deployed to qualitatively influence human judgments such as rulings on legal disputes or fitness for work to evaluate disability benefits. In keeping with the precautionary principle, it is important that those who are developing this capability — technologists and scientists — think through its potential implications.The aim of this book is to explore the technological and social and implications of computers and robots becoming increasingly ‘aware’ of their environment and the people in it, and their being increasingly ‘self-aware’ of their own existence within it.The wide-ranging scope of the text covers three different angles of the concept of ‘the computer after me’: (1) the next generation of computationally powerful aware systems; (2) systems in which the computer is aware of qualitatively impact human concerns such as law, health and rules; and (3) computers and robots which are aware of themselves.

Issues in Animal Science and Research 2012 Edition

Author:
Publisher: ScholarlyEditions
ISBN: 1481646222
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Issues in Animal Science and Research / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Laboratory Animals. The editors have built Issues in Animal Science and Research: 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Laboratory Animals in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Animal Science and Research: 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Experiential Learning

Author: David A. Kolb
Publisher: FT Press
ISBN: 0133892506
Format: PDF, ePub
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Experiential learning is a powerful and proven approach to teaching and learning that is based on one incontrovertible reality: people learn best through experience. Now, in this extensively updated book, David A. Kolb offers a systematic and up-to-date statement of the theory of experiential learning and its modern applications to education, work, and adult development. Experiential Learning, Second Edition builds on the intellectual origins of experiential learning as defined by figures such as John Dewey, Kurt Lewin, Jean Piaget, and L.S. Vygotsky, while also reflecting three full decades of research and practice since the classic first edition. Kolb models the underlying structures of the learning process based on the latest insights in psychology, philosophy, and physiology. Building on his comprehensive structural model, he offers an exceptionally useful typology of individual learning styles and corresponding structures of knowledge in different academic disciplines and careers. Kolb also applies experiential learning to higher education and lifelong learning, especially with regard to adult education. This edition reviews recent applications and uses of experiential learning, updates Kolb's framework to address the current organizational and educational landscape, and features current examples of experiential learning both in the field and in the classroom. It will be an indispensable resource for everyone who wants to promote more effective learning: in higher education, training, organizational development, lifelong learning environments, and online.

Time and TAME in Language

Author: Karina Veronica Molsing
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1443867969
Format: PDF
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This book presents a collection of papers on various syntactic and semantic aspects of temporal expression in language. The articles included in this volume were presented at the I International Meeting on Syntax and Semantics and their Interfaces, with the main theme of the event being time. The authors include well-renowned researchers as well as new contributors to the field who present cutting-edge research on a variety of topics, ranging from the fundamental nature of time to formal approaches to specific tense-aspect structures as well as their interaction with other grammatical categories. This volume represents a valuable contribution to the field and will be of interest to scholars studying the representation of time in language as well as to syntacticians and semanticists in general.

Embodied Communication in Humans and Machines

Author: Ipke Wachsmuth
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780199231751
Format: PDF, Docs
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Communication is not just about the transfer of verbal information. Gestures, facial expressions, intonation and body language are all major sources of information during conversation. This book presents a new perspective on communication, one that will help us to better understand humans, and also to build machines that can communicate.

Primate Perspectives on Behavior and Cognition

Author: David A. Washburn
Publisher: Amer Psychological Assn
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub
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Experts with a diverse range of perspectives explore the contributions made to the study of primate cognition and behavior and provide guideposts for new generations of researchers studying behavior as manifested across primate species. The contributors first explore commonly used research methodology and then look at the groundbreaking content of recent research.