The Moral Sense

Author: James Q. Wilson
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1439105030
Format: PDF, ePub
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Are human beings naturally endowed with a conscience? Or is morality artificially acquired through social pressure and instruction? Most people assume that modern science proves the latter. Further, most of our current social policies are based upon this “scientific” view of the sources of morality. In this book, however, James Q. Wilson seeks to reconcile traditional ideas with a range of important empirical research into the sources of human behavior over the last fifty years. Marshalling evidence drawn from diverse scientific disciplines, including animal behavior, anthropology, evolutionary theory, biology, endocrinology, brain science, genetics, primatology, education and psychology, Wilson shows that the facts about the origin and development of moral reasoning are not at odds with traditional views predating Freud, Darwin and Marx. Our basic sense of right and wrong actually does have a biological and behavioral origin. This “moral sense” arises from the infant’s innate sociability, though it must also be nurtured by parental influence. Thus, this book revives ancient traditions of moral and ethical argument that go back to Aristotle, and reunifies the separate streams of philosophical and scientific knowledge that for so long were regarded as unbridgeable.

Why We Fight

Author: David Churchman
Publisher: University Press of America
ISBN: 0761861386
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book draws on twenty-four academic disciplines to analyze some 100 theories that explain the origins, nature, and management of human conflict. It treats intellectual, moral, community, political, and international conflicts, explains the difference between good and bad theories, and discusses how to use and improve existing theories.

Why They Do It

Author: Eugene Soltes
Publisher: Hachette UK
ISBN: 1610395379
Format: PDF
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From the financial fraudsters of Enron, to the embezzlers at Tyco, to the insider traders at McKinsey, to the Ponzi schemer Bernie Madoff, the failings of corporate titans are regular fixtures in the news. But what drives wealthy and powerful people to white-collar crime? Harvard Business School professor Eugene Soltes draws from extensive personal interaction and correspondence with nearly fifty former executives as well as the latest research in psychology, criminology, and economics to investigate how once-celebrated executives become white-collar criminals. The product of seven years in the company of the men behind the largest corporate crimes in history, Why They Do It is a breakthrough look at the dark side of the business world. Soltes reveals how the usual explanations fail to tell the whole story of why many seemingly successful people go over the line. White-collar criminals are not merely driven by excessive greed or hubris, nor do they usually carefully calculate costs and benefits before breaking the law. Instead, Soltes shows that most of the executives who committed crimes made decisions the way we all do—on the basis of their intuitions and gut feelings. The trouble is that these gut feelings are often poorly suited for the modern business world where leaders are increasingly distanced from the consequences of their decisions and the individuals they impact. The extraordinary costs of corporate misconduct are clear to its victims. Yet, never before have we been able to peer so deeply into the minds of the many prominent perpetrators of white-collar crime. With the increasing globalization of business threatening us with even more devastating corporate misconduct, the lessons Soltes draws in Why They Do It are needed more urgently than ever.

Toleration

Author: Bican Sahin
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 9780739147412
Format: PDF, Mobi
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More than anything, diversity is what characterizes societies of the 21st century. Our contemporary societies are marked by ethnic, religious, racial, ideological, moral, and sexual diversity. Cultural, moral, and ideological pluralism is a fact of our lives. While some people see this phenomenon as a source of richness and thus welcome it, others feel threatened by it. Those who feel threatened have two options before them; they will either learn how to live with diversity or look for ways to suppress it. While, this latter option causes social conflict, the former ameliorates social conflict. This option is called 'toleration.' Toleration: The Liberal Virtue is a defense of toleration as a remedy to societal conflict caused by differences. It examines four prominent grounds of toleration: skepticism, prudence, autonomy, and conscience which are illustrated through the works of four pioneering liberals, namely, Michel de Montaigne, John Locke, John Stuart Mill, and Pierre Bayle, respectively.

Moral and Political Philosophy

Author: James H. Rutherford
Publisher: Top 20 Pub
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub
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At the time of a clash of civilisations it is not unusual for both sides to re-examine, define, and even sometimes codify their basic values and cultural institutions in order to both preserve and convey their basic values and traditions. At the time of the fall of communism in the Soviet Union and in Eastern Europe, the United States did this poorly. It appears that we are making a similar mistake in our war against terrorism, which is very much a battle of ideas and ideologies and will have to be understood as such for any chance of a long-term resolution and reconciliation. We are missing a defining opportunity in the history of the moral and political philosophy of the liberal tradition; first, by not defining our primary moral value as equality, understood as a respect for human life; and second, by not defining our government as a constitutional democracy, which is the only way to convey both the substantive and the procedural concepts of equality that it incorporates. Such concepts of equality are perhaps so ingrained in our own culture that we take them for granted and fail to reflect on them, to clarify and delineate their meaning, and to convey to others their significance. On the other hand, the enormous damages done recently in the court of world opinion concerning the issues of prisoner abuse in Iraq and our failure to voluntarily abide by the spirit of the Geneva Conventions would likely have been avoided if we had understood and attempted to convey our primary moral value as equality, understood as an affirmation of the dignity and worth of our common humanity. The distortion of our moral compass has been from the top down, beginning with our academic elites.

Perspectives on Welfare

Author: Alan Deacon
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
ISBN: 9780335203208
Format: PDF, Docs
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"Of the several discussions of the American poverty theorists I have read, this is easily the best. Anyone interested in that debate should begin here." - Professor Lawrence M. Mead, New York University "...a compelling guide to the ideas that have shaped and seek to re-shape welfare provision. This is a student text that teachers will want to read first." - Professor Robert Walker, University of Nottingham * How do welfare benefits and services shape the attitudes, behaviour and character of claimants? Should entitlement be dependent upon good behaviour? * What are the major intellectual influences upon current welfare reforms in the UK and the US? * Is it possible to reform welfare in ways which tackle both social inequality and welfare dependency? This lucid and engaging book provides an introduction to the current debates about the future direction of welfare reform on both sides of the Atlantic. The first part outlines a range of different perspectives on welfare, and shows how each of these perspectives rests upon a different assumption about the role and purpose of welfare policy and a different understanding of human nature and motivation. Some of these perspectives see the primary role of welfare as to reduce inequalities, while others see the central objective as the reduction of welfare dependency. The second part shows how the current debates in Britain and the United States are informed by these perspectives, and argues that debates about inequality and dependency are not mutually exclusive but address different dimensions of the same problem. In all, this illuminating and forward-looking text is essential reading for courses in social policy, health, and social welfare, as well as those with a political and wider interest in welfare reform.

The Moral Judgement of the Child

Author: Jean Piaget
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 0684833301
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"This classic study examines a problem that stands at the heart of society: How does a child distinguish between right and wrong?" "Professor Piaget and his colleagues begin their investigation by analyzing the "rules of the game" - in this case a seemingly simple game of marbles - as handed down from one group of children to another. They observe the child's total acceptance of the consensus rules and describe the moral pressure of the group on the individual. Piaget proceeds to an analysis of lying, cheating, adult authority, punishment, and responsibility, noting and evaluating the changing attitudes of growing children toward these "moral realities."" "The book concludes with a comparison of the findings of this significant study with those theories in social psychology and sociology that bear directly on the moral development of the child."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Moral Education

Author: Émile Durkheim
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486424987
Format: PDF, ePub
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Eighteen lectures by an influential theorist who discusses school as an appropriate setting for moral education. A pioneer of sociology, Durkheim explains the first element in fostering morality as the development of a sense of discipline, followed by a willingness to behave in accordance with collective interest, and a sense of autonomy.