The Nature of Nutrition

Author: Stephen J. Simpson
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691145652
Format: PDF
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"Debates continue to rage about what diet is best, in part because an underlying theoretical framework for choosing one over another has been lacking. Not so any longer. "The Nature of Nutrition" demystifies the complexity of nutrition and diet choice and shows why people and other creatures eat the way they do. Along the way, readers learn about the adaptive value of cannibalism, the impact of diet on sex lives, how dietary choices affect entire ecosystems, and so much more."--Daniel Rubenstein, Princeton University ""The Nature of Nutrition" is a must-read for anyone interested in the role nutrition plays in the survival of the fittest. Starting with the "Origin of Species," Simpson and Raubenheimer guide us through the nutritional strategies that maintained reproductive health and mating behaviors despite periods of food shortage and danger from predators. The protein leverage hypothesis provides a solid foundation to explain the growing global epidemic of human obesity."--Eric Ravussin, Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System "A fascinating and authoritative treatment of nutrition in an ecological and evolutionary framework. Simpson and Raubenheimer's novel perspective crosses disciplines, from the organism to the population to the ecosystem, providing a long-needed unifying framework to what has previously largely been the domain of clinical science."--Simon A. Levin, Princeton University "This outstanding book provides the first comprehensive theoretical framework for analyzing the roles of nutrition across a huge swath of fields, from ecology and evolution to conservation and human health." The Nature of Nutrition" is creative and scholarly yet approachable. I know of no other book like it."--Bernard J. Crespi, Simon Fraser University ""The Nature of Nutrition" covers a vast range of issues, from reproduction, immunology, and toxicology to insect migration, population ecology, predator-prey interactions, and ecosystem functioning, as well as applied issues such as conservation biology and human nutritional pathologies. I enjoyed each and every chapter of this excellent book."--Kenneth Wilson, Lancaster University

The Nature of Nutrition

Author: Stephen J. Simpson
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400842808
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Nutrition has long been considered more the domain of medicine and agriculture than of the biological sciences, yet it touches and shapes all aspects of the natural world. The need for nutrients determines whether wild animals thrive, how populations evolve and decline, and how ecological communities are structured. The Nature of Nutrition is the first book to address nutrition's enormously complex role in biology, both at the level of individual organisms and in their broader ecological interactions. Stephen Simpson and David Raubenheimer provide a comprehensive theoretical approach to the analysis of nutrition--the Geometric Framework. They show how it can help us to understand the links between nutrition and the biology of individual animals, including the physiological mechanisms that determine the nutritional interactions of the animal with its environment, and the consequences of these interactions in terms of health, immune responses, and lifespan. Simpson and Raubenheimer explain how these effects translate into the collective behavior of groups and societies, and in turn influence food webs and the structure of ecosystems. Then they demonstrate how the Geometric Framework can be used to tackle issues in applied nutrition, such as the problem of optimizing diets for livestock and endangered species, and how it can also help to address the epidemic of human obesity and metabolic disease. Drawing on a wealth of examples from slime molds to humans, The Nature of Nutrition has important applications in ecology, evolution, and physiology, and offers promising solutions for human health, conservation, and agriculture.

What Is Fat For

Author: Ignatius J Brady MD
Publisher: Ignatius Brady
ISBN: 9780692590065
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Obesity science has reached a crossroads: The carbohydrate hypothesis is poised to overtake "calories in, calories out" as the predominant understanding of weight gain. Physicians, dietitians and trainers have come to treat "carbs are bad" as a new gospel, preaching a lifestyle that strays very far from the true scientific consensus. In "What Is Fat For?" Ignatius Brady, a weight loss physician and science writer, presents a fresh perspective on obesity based on critical new research that has gone largely overlooked. The protein leverage hypothesis holds that neither dietary fat nor dietary carbohydrate "cause" us to gain weight. The issue is re-framed and discussed as an imbalance between "protein" and "non-protein" energy. A current imbalance in our food supply has caused a widespread human adaptation: the obesity epidemic. In a thorough yet readable style, the book takes the reader through normal human weight regulation, the time frame needed for weight loss, and what's missing in the "carbs are bad" thinking. This is not a diet book, but a scientific exploration of the inner workings of human biology and our interactions with the modern nutritional environment. The question, "What is fat for?" drives this narrative, which takes nothing for granted, analyzes all possibilities and presents detailed evidence for the reader's best judgment. Biases are overturned, accepted wisdom is re-considered and new answers are discovered.

Human Physical Fitness and Activity

Author: Ann E. Caldwell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319304097
Format: PDF, Kindle
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​The science of human physical activity and fitness is ripe for a novel theoretical framework that can integrate the ecological, genetic, physiological and psychological factors that influence physical activity in humans. Physical inactivity dominates most developed nations around the world, and is among the leading causes of disease burden and death worldwide. Despite the wide array of physical and mental health benefits, few people get the recommended level of physical activity to achieve these benefits. Current research on physical activity has not, as of yet, been successful for the development of effective exercise interventions. Several researchers have advocated a more integrative approach that takes evolutionary history into account, but such a framework has yet to be advanced. To that aim, the first goal of this book is to present a comprehensive evolutionary and life history framework that highlights the domain-specific aspects of the evolved psychology and physiology that can lead to a more integrated and complete understanding of physical activity across the lifespan. It summarizes and extends previous work that has been done to understand the ways natural selection has shaped physical activity in humans in traditional and modern economies and environments. In many ways, humans are adapted to be physically active. Overall, however, natural selection has shaped a flexible, but energy conscious system that responds to environmental and individual costs and benefits of physical activity to optimally allocate a finite energetic budget across the lifespan. This system is adapted to respond to cues of resource scarcity and high levels of obligatory physical activity, and conserves energy to favor allocation in ways that increase the likelihood of reproductive success and survival. This nuanced application leads to a more thorough understanding of the circumstances that natural selection is predicted to favor both sedentary and active behaviors in predictable ways across the lifespan. The second goal of this book is to synthesize and interpret cross-disciplinary research (from biological and evolutionary anthropology and psychology; epidemiology; health psychology; and exercise physiology) that can illuminate original approaches to increase physical activity in modern, primarily sedentary contexts. This includes a breakdown of the human lifespan to discuss the predicted costs and benefits of physical activity at each stage of life in order to differentiate the obstacles to physical activity and exercise that are functionally adaptive—or were in the environments that they evolved—and identifying which factors are more modifiable than others in order to develop interventions and environments that are more conducive to physical activity. Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0in; mso-para-margin-right:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0in; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

Following Zwingli

Author: Luca Baschera
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317134613
Format: PDF
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Following Zwingli explores history, scholarship, and memory in Reformation Zurich. The humanist culture of this city was shaped by a remarkable sodality of scholars, many of whom had been associated with Erasmus. In creating a new Christian order, Zwingli and his colleagues sought biblical, historical, literary, and political models to shape and defend their radical reforms. After Zwingli’s sudden death, the next generation was committed to the institutional and intellectual establishment of the Reformation through ongoing dialogue with the past. The essays of this volume examine the immediacy of antiquity, early Christianity, and the Middle Ages for the Zurich reformers. Their reading and appropriation of history was no mere rhetorical exercise or polemical defence. The Bible, theology, church institutions, pedagogy, and humanist scholarship were the lifeblood of the Reformation. But their appropriation depended on the interplay of past ideals with the pressing demands of a sixteenth-century reform movement troubled by internal dissention and constantly under attack. This book focuses on Zwingli’s successors and on their interpretations of the recent and distant past: the choices they made, and why. How those pasts spoke to the present and how they were heard tell us a great deal not only about the distinctive nature of Zurich and Zwinglianism, but also about locality, history, and religious change in the European Reformation.

Cracking the Aging Code

Author: Josh Mitteldorf
Publisher: Macmillan
ISBN: 1250061709
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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A revolutionary examination of why we age, what it means for our health, and how we just might be able to fight it. In Cracking the Aging Code, theoretical biologist Josh Mitteldorf and award-winning writer and ecological philosopher Dorion Sagan reveal that evolution and aging are even more complex and breathtaking than we originally thought. Using meticulous multidisciplinary science, as well as reviewing the history of our understanding about evolution, this book makes the case that aging is not something that “just happens,” nor is it the result of wear and tear or a genetic inevitability. Rather, aging has a fascinating evolutionary purpose: to stabilize populations and ecosystems, which are ever-threatened by cyclic swings that can lead to extinction. When a population grows too fast it can put itself at risk of a wholesale wipeout. Aging has evolved to help us adjust our growth in a sustainable fashion as well as prevent an ecological crisis from starvation, predation, pollution, or infection. This dynamic new understanding of aging is provocative, entertaining, and pioneering, and will challenge the way we understand aging, death, and just what makes us human.

Handbook of Diet and Nutrition in the Menstrual Cycle Periconception and Fertility

Author: Caroline J. Hollins-Martin
Publisher: Wageningen Academic Publishers
ISBN: 9086862128
Format: PDF, ePub
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The reproductive cycle in women is complex and can be considered to begin with epigenetic programming and ending with menopause. Intervening steps involve a variety of processes, including the cellular development of the sex organs, menarche, episodic endocrine cycles, menstruation, ovulation and conception. These processes can be influenced by diet and nutrition and vice versa. Body composition has an impact on the menstrual cycle and periconception and these factors in turn also influence body composition. Similarly, either food deprivation, dietary excess or obesity can result in marked changes in the menstrual cycle with a concomitant effect on fertility. This handbook is the first scientific source that provides a comprehensive overview of the relationship of diet and nutrition with puberty, menarche and menstrual cycle, conception and fertility and infertility. The handbook of diet and nutrition in the menstrual cycle, conception and fertility will benefit dieticians, nutritionists, gynaecologists, endocrinologists, obstetricians, paediatricians and those concerned with women's health in general.

Food and Nutrition

Author: Paul Fieldhouse
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1489932569
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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As someone who was trained in the clinical sdentific tradition it took me several years to start to appreciate that food was more than a collection of nutrients, and that most people did not make their choices of what to eat on the biologically rational basis of nutritional composition. This realiza tion helped tobring me to an understanding of why people didn't always eat what (I believed) was good for them, and why the patients I had seen in hospital as often as not had failed to follow the dietary advice I had so confidently given. When I entered the field of health education I quickly discovered the farnaus World Health Organization definition of health as being a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease. Health was a triangle -and I had been guilty of virtu ally ignoring two sides of that triangle. As I became involved in practical nutrition education initiatives the deficiencies of an approach based on giving information about nutrition and physical health became more and more apparent. The children whom I saw in schools knew exactly what to say when asked to describe a nutritious diet: they could recite the food guide and list rich sources of vitamins and minerals; but none of this intellectual knowledge was reflected in their own actual eating habits.

The Symbiotic Habit

Author: Angela E. Douglas
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400835437
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Throughout the natural world, organisms have responded to predators, inadequate resources, or inclement conditions by forming ongoing mutually beneficial partnerships--or symbioses--with different species. Symbiosis is the foundation for major evolutionary events, such as the emergence of eukaryotes and plant eating among vertebrates, and is also a crucial factor in shaping many ecological communities. The Symbiotic Habit provides an accessible and authoritative introduction to symbiosis, describing how symbioses are established, function, and persist in evolutionary and ecological time. Angela Douglas explains the evolutionary origins and development of symbiosis, and illustrates the principles of symbiosis using a variety of examples of symbiotic relationships as well as nonsymbiotic ones, such as parasitic or fleeting mutualistic associations. Although the reciprocal exchange of benefit is the key feature of symbioses, the benefits are often costly to provide, causing conflict among the partners. Douglas shows how these conflicts can be managed by a single controlling organism that may selectively reward cooperative partners, control partner transmission, and employ recognition mechanisms that discriminate between beneficial and potentially harmful or ineffective partners. The Symbiotic Habit reveals the broad uniformity of symbiotic process across many different symbioses among organisms with diverse evolutionary histories, and demonstrates how symbioses can be used to manage ecosystems, enhance food production, and promote human health.