The New Central Asia

Author: Olivier Roy
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814776094
Format: PDF, Kindle
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During the anti-Gorbachev coup in August 1991 most communist leaders from Soviet Central Asia backed the plotters. Within weeks of the coup's collapse these same leaders procaimed the independence of their nations. This work analyzes the political structure supporting the new nation states.

The New Central Asia

Author: Olivier Roy
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781845115524
Format: PDF, Kindle
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During the anti-Gorbachev coup in August 1991, most communist leaders from Soviet Central Asia backed theplotters. Within weeks of the coup?s collapse, these very same leaders - now transformed into ardent nationalists - proclaimed the independence of their nations, designed new flags, invented new slogans and discovered a new patriotism. How were these new nations built, without any traditional nationalist reference points? According to Olivier Roy, Soviet practice had always been to build on local institutions and promote local elites. Thus Soviet administration - as opposed to Soviet policy making - was always surprisingly decentralized.With home-grown political leaders and administrative institutions, national identities in Central Asia emergedalmost by stealth. Roy?s compelling analysis of the new Central Asian states - Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kirghizstan and Azerbaijan - makes an invaluable contribution to our understanding of the geopolitics of Central Asia.

Politics in the Vernacular

Author: Will Kymlicka
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198296657
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This volume brings together eighteen of Will Kymlicka's recent essays on nationalism, multiculturalism and citizenship. These essays expand on the well-known theory of minority rights first developed in his Multicultural Citizenship. In these new essays, Kymlicka applies his theory to several pressing controversies regarding ethnic relations today, responds to some of his critics, and situates the debate over minority rights within the larger context of issues of nationalism, democratic citizenship and globalization. The essays are divided into four sections. The first section summarizes 'the state of the debate' over minority rights, and explains how the debate has evolved over the past 15 years. The second section explores the requirements of ethnocultural justice in a liberal democracy. Kymlicka argues that the protection of individual human rights is insufficient to ensure justice between ethnocultural groups, and that minority rights must supplement human rights. Inparticular, Kymlicka explores why some form of power-sharing (such as federalism) is often required to ensure justice for national minorities; why indigenous peoples have distinctive rights relating to economic development and environmental protection; and why we need to define fairer terms of integration for immigrants. The third section focuses on nationalism. Kymlicka discusses some of the familiar misinterpretations and preconceptions which liberals have about nationalism, and defends theneed to recognize that there are genuinely liberal forms of nationalism. He discusses the familiar (but misleading) contrast between 'cosmopolitanism' and 'nationalism', and discusses why liberals have gradually moved towards a position that combines elements of both. The final section explores how these increasing demands by ethnic and national groups for minority rights affect the practice of democratic citizenship. Kymlicka surveys recent theories of citizenship, and raises questions about how they are challenged by ethnocultural diversity. He emphasizes the importance of education as a site of conflict between demands for accommodating ethnocultural diversity and demands for promoting the common virtues and loyalties required by democratic citizenship. And, finally, he explores the extent to which 'globalization' requires us to think about citizenship in more global terms, or whether citizenship will remain tied to national institutions and political processes. Taken together, these essays make a major contribution to enriching our understanding of the theory and practice of ethnocultural relations in Western democracies.

Prisoners of Geography

Author: Tim Marshall
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1501121472
Format: PDF
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First published in Great Britain in 2015 by Elliott and Thompson Limited.

Modern Middle East Authoritarianism

Author: Noureddine Jebnoun
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135007306
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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While the Arab uprisings have overturned the idea of Arab "exceptionalism," or the acceptance of authoritarianism, better analysis of authoritarianism’s resilience in pre- and post-uprising scenarios is still needed. Modern Middle East Authoritarianism: Roots, Ramifications, and Crisis undertakes this task by addressing not only the mechanisms that allowed Middle Eastern regimes to survive and adapt for decades, but also the obstacles that certain countries face in their current transition to democracy. This volume analyzes the role of ruling elites, Islamists, and others, as well as variables such as bureaucracy, patronage, the strength of security apparatuses, and ideological legitimacy to ascertain regimes’ life expectancies and these factors’ post-uprisings repercussions. Discussing not only the paradigms through which the region has been analyzed, but also providing in-depth case studies of Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Iran, the authors arrive at critical conclusions about dictatorship and possibilities for its transformation. Employing diverse research methods, including interviews, participant observation, and theoretical discussions of authoritarianism and political transition, this book is essential reading for scholars of Middle East Studies, Islamic Studies and those with an interest in the governance and politics of the Middle East.

Post Imperium

Author: Dmitri V. Trenin
Publisher: Brookings Institution Press
ISBN: 087003345X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The war in Georgia. Tensions with Ukraine and other nearby countries. Moscow's bid to consolidate its "zone of privileged interests" among the Commonwealth of Independent States. These volatile situations all raise questions about the nature of and prospects for Russia's relations with its neighbors. In this book, Carnegie scholar Dmitri Trenin argues that Moscow needs to drop the notion of creating an exclusive power center out of the post-Soviet space. Like other former European empires, Russia will need to reinvent itself as a global player and as part of a wider community. Trenin's vision of Russia is an open Euro-Pacific country that is savvy in its use of soft power and fully reconciled with its former borderlands and dependents. He acknowledges that this scenario may sound too optimistic but warns that the alternative is not a new version of the historic empire but instead is the ultimate marginalization of Russia.

Great Games Local Rules

Author: Alexander Cooley
Publisher:
ISBN: 0199812004
Format: PDF, ePub
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The struggle between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia in the nineteenth century was the original "great game." But in the past quarter century, a new "great game" has emerged, pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource-hungry China, all struggling for influence over the same region, now one of the most volatile areas in the world: the long border region stretching from Iran through Pakistan to Kashmir. In Great Games, Local Rules, Alexander Cooley, one of America's most respected international relations scholars, explores the dynamics of the new competition for control of the region since 9/11. All three great powers have crafted strategies to increase their power in the area, which includes Afghanistan and the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. Each nation is pursuing important goals: basing rights for the US, access to natural resources for the Chinese, and increased political influence for the Russians. However, overlooked in all of the talk about this new great game is fact that the Central Asian governments have proven themselves critical agents in their own right, establishing local rules for external power involvement that serve to fend off foreign interest. As a result, despite a decade of intense interest from the United States, Russia, and China, Central Asia remains a collection of segmented states, and the external competition has merely reinforced the sovereign authority of the individual Central Asian governments. A careful and surprising analysis of how small states interact with great powers in a vital region, Great Games, Local Rules greatly advances our understanding of how global politics actually works in the contemporary era.

The Resurgence of Central Asia

Author: Ahmed Rashid
Publisher: New York Review of Books
ISBN: 1681370883
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Conquerors, Khans, and Communists -- The two revolutions 1917-1991 -- Socialism along the silk road: economy and society in Central Asia -- At the centre of the world: Uzbekistan -- Warriors of the turquoise hills: Kazakhstan -- The cradle of the earth: Kyrgyzstan -- The mountains of Islam: Tajikistan -- The desert horsemen: Turkmenistan -- The great game revisited: Central Asia's foreign policy -- Uncertain homelands: security, Islam and nationalism

In Search of Southeast Asia

Author: David P. Chandler
Publisher: University of Hawaii Press
ISBN: 9780824811105
Format: PDF, Docs
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Six contemporary historians trace the development of distinctive cultural, political, and social institutions in Southeast Asia

On Liberal Peace

Author: John MacMillan
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860640100
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This is a study of the relationship between liberalism, liberal states and peace. Basing his approach on a synthesis of political philosophy and history, John MacMillan explores the concept and manifestations of liberal pacifism, to argue that it is most pronounced when associated with an anti-statist, cosmopolitan form of liberalism. He traces the emergence of a liberal international order and stresses certain key elements such as the rights of the individual in international society, liberal notions of political economy and self-determination, and the area of civil-military relations, in order to show the way in which liberals have regarded peace as a unique primary good. The analysis rests upon a distinction between "liberalism", understood as an evolving ethical discourse, and "liberal states" which may in practice contain a number of ideological strands, some of which - such as statism, nationalism and imperialism - are antithetical both to liberalism and to peace. Through this distinction, MacMillan moves beyond the current understanding that liberal pacifism is manifest only in relations between liberal states, and argues for recognition of a broader eirenic legacy. He defends this claim against the historical record of violence by liberal states, and considers in particular World War I, the South African war, 1899-1902, the Suez war, the French wars of decolonization and the Vietnam war.