The New Terrain of International Law

Author: Karen J. Alter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400848687
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In 1989, when the Cold War ended, there were six permanent international courts. Today there are more than two dozen that have collectively issued over thirty-seven thousand binding legal rulings. The New Terrain of International Law charts the developments and trends in the creation and role of international courts, and explains how the delegation of authority to international judicial institutions influences global and domestic politics. The New Terrain of International Law presents an in-depth look at the scope and powers of international courts operating around the world. Focusing on dispute resolution, enforcement, administrative review, and constitutional review, Karen Alter argues that international courts alter politics by providing legal, symbolic, and leverage resources that shift the political balance in favor of domestic and international actors who prefer policies more consistent with international law objectives. International courts name violations of the law and perhaps specify remedies. Alter explains how this limited power--the power to speak the law--translates into political influence, and she considers eighteen case studies, showing how international courts change state behavior. The case studies, spanning issue areas and regions of the world, collectively elucidate the political factors that often intervene to limit whether or not international courts are invoked and whether international judges dare to demand significant changes in state practices.

Europa ja aber welches

Author: Dieter Grimm
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406688705
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Die Europäische Union hat keinen Mangel an Kritik und Akzeptanzproblemen – doch die Ursachen werden häufig an der falschen Stelle gesucht. Während viele hoffen, dass sich durch eine Ausweitung der Kompetenzen des Europäischen Parlaments das Demokratiedefizit der Union beheben lässt, zeigt Dieter Grimm, warum diese Hoffnung trügt. In grundsätzlichen Erörterungen und Einzelstudien zeigt Grimm, einer der renommiertesten deutschen Rechtswissenschaftler, dass eine Ursache für die starken Akzeptanzprobleme meist übersehen wird, nämlich die Verselbständigung der exekutiven und judikativen Organe der EU (Kommission und Europäischer Gerichtshof) von den demokratischen Prozessen in den Mitgliedstaaten und der EU selbst, die ihre Wurzel wiederum in der vom Gerichtshof vorgenommenen „Konstitutionalisierung der Verträge“ hat. Er geht den Ursachen für diese problematische Entwicklung nach und bietet Vorschläge zu ihrer Korrektur an.

The Law and Politics of the Andean Tribunal of Justice

Author: Karen J. Alter
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199680787
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Andean Pact was founded in 1969 to build a common market in South America. Andean leaders copied the institutional and treaty design of the European Community, and in the 1970s, member states decided to add a tribunal, again turning to the European Community as its model. Since its first ruling in 1987, the Andean Tribunal of Justice has exercised authority over the countries which are members of the Andean Community: Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru (formerly also Venezuela). It is now the third most active international court in the world, used by governments and private actors to protect their rights and interests in the region. This book investigates how a region with weak legal institutions developed an effective international rule of law, why the Tribunal was able to induce widespread respect for Andean intellectual property rules but not other areas governed by regional integration rules, and what the Tribunal's experience means for comparable international courts. It also assesses the Andean experience in order to reconsider the European Community system, exploring why the law and politics of integration in Europe and the Andes followed different trajectories. It finally provides a detailed analysis of the key factors associated with effective supranational adjudication. This book collects together previously published material by two leading interdisciplinary scholars of international law and politics, and is enhanced by three original chapters further reflecting on the Andean legal order.

Demokratie Diktatur Gerechtigkeit

Author: Aurel Croissant
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 365816090X
Format: PDF
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Der begriffliche Dreiklang Demokratie, Diktatur und Gerechtigkeit benennt zentrale, miteinander verknüpfte politikwissenschaftliche und gesellschaftspolitische Themen des 20. und 21. Jahrhunderts. Der Band bietet aus normativer, theoretischer und empirischer Perspektive innovative Fragestellungen und Erkenntnisse zu den unterschiedlichen Facetten dieser Trias. Die Beiträge widmen sich u.a. der Konzeptualisierung und Messung von Demokratie, den Herausforderungen an junge und alte Demokratien, der Konzeptualisierung, Performanz und Persistenz von Diktaturen sowie Konzepten, Grundfragen und Herausforderungen der Gerechtigkeit in Nord und Süd.

The Case for an International Court of Civil Justice

Author: Maya Steinitz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107162858
Format: PDF, ePub
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When multinational corporations cause mass harms to lives, livelihoods, and the environment in developing countries, it is nearly impossible for victims to find a court that can and will issue an enforceable judgment. In this work, Professor Maya Steinitz presents a detailed rationale for the creation of an International Court of Civil Justice (ICCJ) to hear such transnational mass tort cases. The world's legal systems were not designed to solve these kinds of complex transnational disputes, and the absence of mechanisms to ensure coordination means that victims try, but fail, to find justice in country after country, court after court. The Case for an International Court of Civil Justice explains how an ICCJ would provide victims with access to justice and corporate defendants with a non-corrupt forum and an end to the cost and uncertainty of unending litigation - more efficiently resolving the most complicated types of civil litigation.

International Law

Author: Barry E. Carter
Publisher: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business
ISBN: 1543801307
Format: PDF
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Intended for use in an International Law survey course, International Law, Seventh Edition provides comprehensive coverage of foundational international law questions, including the nature and sources of international law, core doctrinal topics such as the subjects of international law (states and international organizations), and the jurisdictional powers and immunities of states. The book also addresses key substantive topics in international law, with reference to important contemporary foreign policy issues, such as (i) international human rights, (ii) the law of the sea, (iii) international environmental law, (iv) the use of force and the law of armed conflict, and (v) international criminal law. Key Features: New co-author Duncan Hollis of Temple Law School joins Stanford Law School’s Allen Weiner as the active authors of the book. New discussions of major international developments, including the law governing the use of force [e.g., cyber operations and the military campaign against the Islamic State (ISIS)], nonproliferation (e.g., the Iranian and North Korean nuclear crises), the law of the sea (e.g., disputed maritime claims in the South China Sea), and international environmental law (e.g., the conclusion of the Paris Agreement). New case study in Chapter 1 focused on the international response to the rise of ISIS. Inclusion of extended excerpts from a number of major recent Supreme Court decisions related to international law, including Bond v. United States (on fundamental principles of federalism and the treaty power under Article VI of the Constitution), Zivotofsky v. Kerry (on the separation of powers between Congress and the President in the field of foreign affairs), and Kiobel v. Royal Dutch Petroleum Co. (on the Alien Tort Statute). Adopts a modern, conceptual approach to the presentation of materials on statehood (including Palestinian claims to statehood), international organizations, and international dispute resolution.

International Court Authority

Author: Mikael Rask Madsen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192515047
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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An innovative, interdisciplinary and far-reaching examination of the actual reality of international courts, International Court Authority challenges fundamental preconceptions about when, why, and how international courts become important and authoritative actors in national, regional, and international politics. A stellar group of scholars investigate the challenges that international courts face in transforming the formal legal authority conferred by states into an actual authority in fact that is respected by potential litigants, national actors, legal communities, and publics. Alter, Helfer, and Madsen provide a novel framework for conceptualizing international court authority that focuses on the reactions and practices of these key audiences. Eighteen scholars from the disciplines of law, political science and sociology apply this framework to study thirteen international courts operating in Africa, Latin America, and Europe, as well as on a global level. Together the contributors document and explore important and interesting variations in whether the audiences that interact with international courts around the world embrace or reject the rulings of these judicial institutions. Alter, Helfer, and Madsen's authority framework recognizes that international judges can and often do everything they 'should' do to ensure that their rulings possess the gravitas and stature that national courts enjoy. Yet even when imbued with these characteristics, the parties to the dispute, potential future litigants, and the broader set of actors that monitor and respond to the court's activities may fail to acknowledge the rulings as binding or take meaningful steps to modify their behaviour in response to them. For both specific judicial institutions, and more generally, the book documents and explains why most international courts possess de facto authority that is partial, variable, and highly dependent on a range of different audiences and contexts - and thus is highly fragile. An introduction situates the book's unique approach to conceptualizing international court authority within theoretical debates about the authority of global institutions. International Court Authority also includes critical reflections on the authority framework from legal theorists, international relations scholars, a philosopher, and an anthropologist. The book's conclusion questions a number of widely shared assumptions about how social and political contexts facilitate or undermine international courts in developing de facto authority and political power.

The Oxford Handbook of International Adjudication

Author: Cesare Romano
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199660689
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This Oxford Handbook provides interdisciplinary perspectives on international adjudication, analysing the proliferation of international courts and tribunals from the perspective of both international law and political science. It presents the different theoretical approaches to these courts, their main functions, and the issues confronting them.