The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs

Author: Antonella Cupillari
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0123822181
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Nuts and Bolts of Proofs: An Introduction to Mathematical Proofs provides basic logic of mathematical proofs and shows how mathematical proofs work. It offers techniques for both reading and writing proofs. The second chapter of the book discusses the techniques in proving if/then statements by contrapositive and proofing by contradiction. It also includes the negation statement, and/or. It examines various theorems, such as the if and only-if, or equivalence theorems, the existence theorems, and the uniqueness theorems. In addition, use of counter examples, mathematical induction, composite statements including multiple hypothesis and multiple conclusions, and equality of numbers are covered in this chapter. The book also provides mathematical topics for practicing proof techniques. Included here are the Cartesian products, indexed families, functions, and relations. The last chapter of the book provides review exercises on various topics. Undergraduate students in engineering and physical science will find this book invaluable. Jumps right in with the needed vocabulary—gets students thinking like mathematicians from the beginning Offers a large variety of examples and problems with solutions for students to work through on their own Includes a collection of exercises without solutions to help instructors prepare assignments Contains an extensive list of basic mathematical definitions and concepts needed in abstract mathematics

An Introduction to Mathematical Reasoning

Author: Peter J. Eccles
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521597180
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book eases students into the rigors of university mathematics. The emphasis is on understanding and constructing proofs and writing clear mathematics. The author achieves this by exploring set theory, combinatorics, and number theory, topics that include many fundamental ideas and may not be a part of a young mathematician's toolkit. This material illustrates how familiar ideas can be formulated rigorously, provides examples demonstrating a wide range of basic methods of proof, and includes some of the all-time-great classic proofs. The book presents mathematics as a continually developing subject. Material meeting the needs of readers from a wide range of backgrounds is included. The over 250 problems include questions to interest and challenge the most able student but also plenty of routine exercises to help familiarize the reader with the basic ideas.

How to Prove It

Author: Daniel J. Velleman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139450972
Format: PDF
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Many students have trouble the first time they take a mathematics course in which proofs play a significant role. This new edition of Velleman's successful text will prepare students to make the transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory, to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for a step-by-step breakdown of the most important techniques used in constructing proofs. The author shows how complex proofs are built up from these smaller steps, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about the natural numbers, relations, functions, and infinite sets. To give students the opportunity to construct their own proofs, this new edition contains over 200 new exercises, selected solutions, and an introduction to Proof Designer software. No background beyond standard high school mathematics is assumed. This book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and of course mathematicians.

A Transition to Advanced Mathematics

Author: Douglas Smith
Publisher: Cengage Learning
ISBN: 1285463269
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A TRANSITION TO ADVANCED MATHEMATICS helps students to bridge the gap between calculus and advanced math courses. The most successful text of its kind, the 8th edition continues to provide a firm foundation in major concepts needed for continued study and guides students to think and express themselves mathematically—to analyze a situation, extract pertinent facts, and draw appropriate conclusions. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.

Proofs and Refutations

Author: Imre Lakatos
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316425339
Format: PDF
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Imre Lakatos's Proofs and Refutations is an enduring classic, which has never lost its relevance. Taking the form of a dialogue between a teacher and some students, the book considers various solutions to mathematical problems and, in the process, raises important questions about the nature of mathematical discovery and methodology. Lakatos shows that mathematics grows through a process of improvement by attempts at proofs and critiques of these attempts, and his work continues to inspire mathematicians and philosophers aspiring to develop a philosophy of mathematics that accounts for both the static and the dynamic complexity of mathematical practice. With a specially commissioned Preface written by Paolo Mancosu, this book has been revived for a new generation of readers.

The Way of Analysis

Author: Robert S. Strichartz
Publisher: Jones & Bartlett Learning
ISBN: 9780763714970
Format: PDF, ePub
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The Way of Analysis gives a thorough account of real analysis in one or several variables, from the construction of the real number system to an introduction of the Lebesgue integral. The text provides proofs of all main results, as well as motivations, examples, applications, exercises, and formal chapter summaries. Additionally, there are three chapters on application of analysis, ordinary differential equations, Fourier series, and curves and surfaces to show how the techniques of analysis are used in concrete settings.

Conjecture and Proof

Author: Miklós Laczkovich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780883857229
Format: PDF, Kindle
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How to prove interesting and deep mathematical results from first principles, with exercises.

How to Read and Do Proofs

Author: Daniel Solow
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9781118164020
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The inclusion in practically every chapter of new material on how to read and understand proofs as they are typically presented in class lectures, textbooks, and other mathematical literature. The goal is to provide sufficient examples (and exercises) to give students the ability to learn mathematics on their own.

Ricci Flow and the Poincar Conjecture

Author: John W. Morgan
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 9780821843284
Format: PDF, Kindle
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For over 100 years the Poincare Conjecture, which proposes a topological characterization of the 3-sphere, has been the central question in topology. Since its formulation, it has been repeatedly attacked, without success, using various topological methods. Its importance and difficulty were highlighted when it was chosen as one of the Clay Mathematics Institute's seven Millennium Prize Problems. In 2002 and 2003 Grigory Perelman posted three preprints showing how to use geometric arguments, in particular the Ricci flow as introduced and studied by Hamilton, to establish the Poincare Conjecture in the affirmative. This book provides full details of a complete proof of the Poincare Conjecture following Perelman's three preprints. After a lengthy introduction that outlines the entire argument, the book is divided into four parts. The first part reviews necessary results from Riemannian geometry and Ricci flow, including much of Hamilton's work. The second part starts with Perelman's length function, which is used to establish crucial non-collapsing theorems. Then it discusses the classification of non-collapsed, ancient solutions to the Ricci flow equation. The third part concerns the existence of Ricci flow with surgery for all positive time and an analysis of the topological and geometric changes introduced by surgery. The last part follows Perelman's third preprint to prove that when the initial Riemannian 3-manifold has finite fundamental group, Ricci flow with surgery becomes extinct after finite time. The proofs of the Poincare Conjecture and the closely related 3-dimensional spherical space-form conjecture are then immediate. The existence of Ricci flow with surgery has application to 3-manifolds far beyond the Poincare Conjecture. It forms the heart of the proof via Ricci flow of Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture. Thurston's Geometrization Conjecture, which classifies all compact 3-manifolds, will be the subject of a follow-up article. The organization of the material in this book differs from that given by Perelman. From the beginning the authors present all analytic and geometric arguments in the context of Ricci flow with surgery. In addition, the fourth part is a much-expanded version of Perelman's third preprint; it gives the first complete and detailed proof of the finite-time extinction theorem. With the large amount of background material that is presented and the detailed versions of the central arguments, this book is suitable for all mathematicians from advanced graduate students to specialists in geometry and topology. Clay Mathematics Institute Monograph Series The Clay Mathematics Institute Monograph Series publishes selected expositions of recent developments, both in emerging areas and in older subjects transformed by new insights or unifying ideas.

Introduction to Mathematical Proofs Second Edition

Author: Charles Roberts
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482246880
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Introduction to Mathematical Proofs helps students develop the necessary skills to write clear, correct, and concise proofs. Unlike similar textbooks, this one begins with logic since it is the underlying language of mathematics and the basis of reasoned arguments. The text then discusses deductive mathematical systems and the systems of natural numbers, integers, rational numbers, and real numbers. It also covers elementary topics in set theory, explores various properties of relations and functions, and proves several theorems using induction. The final chapters introduce the concept of cardinalities of sets and the concepts and proofs of real analysis and group theory. In the appendix, the author includes some basic guidelines to follow when writing proofs. This new edition includes more than 125 new exercises in sections titled More Challenging Exercises. Also, numerous examples illustrate in detail how to write proofs and show how to solve problems. These examples can serve as models for students to emulate when solving exercises. Several biographical sketches and historical comments have been included to enrich and enliven the text. Written in a conversational style, yet maintaining the proper level of mathematical rigor, this accessible book teaches students to reason logically, read proofs critically, and write valid mathematical proofs. It prepares them to succeed in more advanced mathematics courses, such as abstract algebra and analysis.