The Organization of Action

Author: C.R. Gallistel
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134916302
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A synthesis of classic and modern neurobehavioral literature dealing with the principles by which complex, purposive, and intelligent behavior is generated, this book features: * papers by C.S. Sherrington, E. von Holst, D.M. Wilson, G. Fraenkel, H. Mittelstaedt, and P. Weiss * clear descriptions of three types of elementary units of behavior -- the reflex, the oscillator, and the servomechanism * a review of the diverse manifestations of hierarchical structure in the neural mechanisms underlying coordinated action. This volume has proven to be of great value to psychologists, neurobiologists, and philosophers interested in the problem of action and how it may be approached in light of modern neurobehavioral research. It has been designed for use as a supplemental text in courses in physiological psychology, neurobiology and behavior, and those courses in cognitive and developmental psychology that place particular emphasis on understanding how complex behavior patterns are implemented.

Action and Its Environments

Author: Jeffrey C. Alexander
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 9780231062084
Format: PDF, ePub
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Jeffrey Alexander, known for his work in sociological theory, breaks new ground in Action and Its Environments. The book aims to bring action theory and structure theory back together by focussing on three central questions. First, how can the normative and material properties of social structures be interlinked? Second, can the conventional, creative and strategic dimensions of individual action be related to social structures? Third, what are conditions and limits of modern social and cultural differentiation?In answering these questions Alexander portrays the complex relationship between social movements, public opinion formation, social solidarity, and social change. A new model of the structure and dynamics of cultural systems is presented as well.

Leadership

Author: James G. Hunt
Publisher: SAGE Publications, Incorporated
ISBN: 9780803937680
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Complementing other books published in the field of strategic management, Leadership emphasizes the differences in leadership requirements at multiple levels in an organization - a difference that is not just one of degree but also one of quantity. Hunt draws on stratified systems theory for the book's conceptual framework. He discusses various research strategies with a particular emphasis on time and explores practical leader training and development.

A Bible for a Thoughtful Skeptic

Author: Thom Pain
Publisher: Thom Pain Jr.
ISBN: 1413478859
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book makes the case for realistic faith in the power of intelligence as opposed to blind faith in the pronouncements of those who claim infallibility or divine guidance. The author, Thom Pain, identifies the discoveries of systems and information theory early in the twentieth century as the key to a naturalistic explanation of purposeful life and intelligence and to the last stage in the emancipation of science from theology. He begins his story with the discoveries that revealed the memory mechanism as a built-in "tropisms for truth" that gave even primitive creatures a logical tool for improving their decisions and solving their problems. It is a story that reveals a surprisingly early version of intelligence and an amazing versatility in the types and range of intelligence. When one species developed symbolic languages, it becomes the story of the cultural developments of the human species. As civilization evolved, Thom identifies the rulers and the ruling classes as both the leaders and the obstacles to intellectual progress. In their new role, the rulers either claimed to be gods or the representative of the gods and often led the exploitation that had become the privilege of conquers and of the ruling classes. Indoctrinated faith and loyalty became authoritarian tools of aggression and oppression. In this cruel environment, religion also became a source of moral strength and initiative for the oppressed and religious rebels were often the leaders in the struggles for political and intellectual freedom. These struggles were not about the belief in God but about the abuses of authority by those who claimed to be the representatives of God. Thom follows this story as it sharpened the distinction between reason and theology and led to the modern concepts of democracy and personal and religious freedom.

Strategies for Organic Drug Synthesis and Design

Author: Daniel Lednicer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470399590
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book examines and evaluates the strategies utilized to design and synthesize pharmaceutically active agents. Significant updates over the last 10 years since the publication of the 1st edition include synthesis of enantiomerically pure isomers, novel chemical methodologies, and new pharmaceutical agents targeted at novel biological endpoints. Written by an experienced successful author, this book meets the needs of a growing community of researchers in pharmaceutical R &D, as well as medical professionals, by providing a useful guide for designing and synthesizing pharmaceutical agents. Additionally, it is a useful text for medicinal chemistry students.

A New Synthesis of Public Administration

Author: Jocelyne Bourgon
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 1553393139
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In an increasingly interconnected environment, shocks, crises, cascading failures, and surprising breakthroughs are features of our age. The ability to anticipate, intervene, innovate, and adapt is now seen as essential for governments. Public officials serve in an expanded public space that is being reshaped by the rise of social networking and modern information and communication technologies. The desired results on many public issues exceed the reach and resources of government.

Synthesis and Characterization of Glycosides

Author: Marco Brito-Arias
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319323105
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This second edition is a short and comprehensive study on the best known approaches for preparing the main types of glycosides. It covers synthetic pathways of challenging glycosides known as antiviral or antineoplastic drugs, and synthetic substrates used for enzymatic detection, including those used for detection of gene markers in plant biotechnology. The author pays special attention to the structural characterization of glycosides and provides the basic tools for the structural assignment through NMR, X-Ray and mass spectra techniques. The book also covers strategies for preparation of antiviral and antineoplastic drugs included in a drug design course.

Principles of Asymmetric Synthesis

Author: Robert E. Gawley
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080448607
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The world is chiral. Most of the molecules in it are chiral, and asymmetric synthesis is an important means by which enantiopure chiral molecules may be obtained for study and sale. Using examples from the literature of asymmetric synthesis (more than 1300 references), the aim of this book is to present a detailed analysis of the factors that govern stereoselectivity in organic reactions. It is important to note that the references were each individually checked by the authors to verify relevance to the topics under discussion. The study of stereoselectivity has evolved from issues of diastereoselectivity, through auxiliary-based methods for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure compounds (diastereoselectivity followed by separation and auxiliary cleavage), to asymmetric catalysis. In the latter instance, enantiomers (not diastereomers) are the products, and highly selective reactions and modern purification techniques allow preparation - in a single step - of chiral substances in 99% ee for many reaction types. After an explanation of the basic physical-organic principles of stereoselectivity, the authors provide a detailed, annotated glossary of stereochemical terms. A chapter on "Analytical Methods" provides a critical overview of the most common methods for analysis of stereoisomers. The authors then follow the 'tried-and-true' format of grouping the material by reaction type. Thus, there are four chapters on carbon-carbon bond forming reactions (enolate alkylations, organometal additions to carbonyls, aldol and Michael reactions, and cycloadditions and rearrangements), one chapter on reductions and hydroborations (carbon-hydrogen bond forming reactions), and one on oxidations (carbon-oxygen and carbon-nitrogen bond forming reactions). Leading references are provided to natural product synthesis that have been accomplished using a given reaction as a key step. In addition to tables of examples that show high selectivity, a transition state analysis is presented to explain - to the current level of understanding - the stereoselectivity of each reaction. In one case (Cram's rule) the evolution of the current theory is detailed from its first tentative (1952) postulate to the current Felkin-Anh-Heathcock formalism. For other reactions, only the currently accepted rationale is presented. Examination of these rationales also exposes the weaknesses of current theories, in that they cannot always explain the experimental observations. These shortcomings provide a challenge for future mechanistic investigations. Authoritative glossary to aid understanding of stereochemical terminology Explanations of the key factors influencing stereoselectivity with numerous examples, organized by reaction type A handy reference guide to the literature of asymmetric synthesis for practitioners in the field

Predicting Human Decision Making

Author: Ariel Rosenfeld
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1681732750
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Human decision-making often transcends our formal models of "rationality." Designing intelligent agents that interact proficiently with people necessitates the modeling of human behavior and the prediction of their decisions. In this book, we explore the task of automatically predicting human decision-making and its use in designing intelligent human-aware automated computer systems of varying natures—from purely conflicting interaction settings (e.g., security and games) to fully cooperative interaction settings (e.g., autonomous driving and personal robotic assistants). We explore the techniques, algorithms, and empirical methodologies for meeting the challenges that arise from the above tasks and illustrate major benefits from the use of these computational solutions in real-world application domains such as security, negotiations, argumentative interactions, voting systems, autonomous driving, and games. The book presents both the traditional and classical methods as well as the most recent and cutting edge advances, providing the reader with a panorama of the challenges and solutions in predicting human decision-making.

Exposing the Magic of Design

Author: Jon Kolko
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199780951
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Design synthesis is a way of thinking about complicated, multifaceted problems of a large scale with a repeatable degree of success. Design synthesis methods can be applied in business, with the goal of producing new and compelling products and services, and they can be applied in government, with the goal of changing culture and bettering society. In both contexts, however, there is a need for speed and for aggressive action. This text is immediately relevant, and is more relevant than ever, as we acknowledge and continually reference a feeling of an impending and massive change. Simply, this text is intended to act as a practitioner's guide to exposing the magic of design.