The Pharmacology of Nerve and Muscle in Tissue Culture

Author: Alan L. Harvey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468488104
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The techniques of tissue culture were introduced at the beginning of this century. They have become more and more popular as it is realized that they are not as difficult or as esoteric as some early protagonists liked to maintain. Most of the work performed with culture methods has simply concerned cell growth and survival. Biologists have long used culture approaches to provide a simple system in which to study cell division and multiplication. Any pharmacology done on cultured tissue was largely toxicological or as part of a screening programme for poten tial anti-cancer drugs. In the last decade there has been a great increase in the use of excitable cells in tissue culture. Nerves and muscles from a wide variety of sources can maintain their highly differentiated properties in culture. Such cultures offer an attractive preparation for use in physiological and pharmacological investigations. Consequently, a vast amount of work has been produced, and this book is an attempt to review it. It is hoped that this will introduce physiologists and pharmacologists to the potential of culture methods for their experiments and also indicate to more traditional tissue culture users further possible areas of interest. By being more comprehensive in scope and by trying to concentrate largely on drug actions, I hope that the present volume usefully extends the treatment of the subject begun earlier in the excellent works by Crain (1976) and Nelson and Lieberman (1981).

Protocols for Neural Cell Culture

Author: Sergey Fedoroff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475725868
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This volume is designed to be kept close at hand as a ready reference and a guide to laboratory procedures. It is based on tissue culture manuals used for a number of years at international courses on tissue culture at the University of Saskatchewan, made possible by the generous support of the Canadian Council of Animal Care and the Medical Research Council of Canada. Sergey Fedoroff Arleen Richardson The second edition of Protocols for Neural Cell Culture adheres to the prin ciples enunciated in the first edition, but the content has been extensively revised and expanded. Two new chapters have been added to reflect the increased interest in the development and differentiation of the nervous system and in the reconstruction of its circuitry in tissue culture. One chapter deals with slice cul tures in which the organization of the nervous system is preserved. When slice cultures are combined with explant cultures, afferent and efferent projections can be reconstructed. The other chapter deals with aggregating neural cell cul tures, in which "minibrains" can form. Theses are small, uniformly sized spheres of nervous tissue, usually having nerve cells in the center and astrocytes, oligo dendrocytes, and microglia in the periphery. Such cultures can be used to study neutral cell interactions in an organized milieu and for qualitative as well as quantitative studies at biochemical and molecular levels.

Excitable Cells in Tissue Culture

Author: Phillip G. Nelson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468438034
Format: PDF
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The tissue culture approach to the study of membrane properties of excitable cells has progressed beyond the technical problems of culture methodology. Recent developments have fostered substantive contributions in research con cerned with the physiology, pharmacology, and biophysics of cell membranes in tissue culture. The scope of this volume is related to the application of tissue culture methodology to developmental processes and cellular mechanisms of electrical and chemical excitability. The major emphasis will be on the body of new biological information made available by the analytic possibilities inherent in the tissue culture systems. Naturally occurring preparations of excitable cells are frequently of suf ficient morphological complexity to compromise the analysis of the data obtained from them. Some of the limitations associated with dissected prepa rations have to do with the direct visualization of and access to the cell(s) in question and maintenance of steady-state conditions for prolonged periods of time. Since preparations in tissue culture can circumvent these problems, it is feasible to analyze the properties of identifiable cells, grown either singly or in prescribed geometries, as well as to follow the development of cellular inter actions. A crucial consideration in the use of cultured preparations is that they must faithfully capture the phenomenon of interest to the investigator. This and other potential limitations on the methodology are of necessary concern in the present volume.

Tissue Culture of the Nervous System

Author: Gordon Sato
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468429043
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The impetus for compiling this book was the recent development of culture strains of neuroblastoma and glial cells and the immediate and enthusiastic way they have been taken up as model systems. After the first sudden rush of activity, it seems appropriate to pause, to assess progress, and to contemplate the future contributions that may be possible using these culture techniques. Long before the advent of established strains, cultures of nervous tissue had already contributed to neurobiology. Ross Harrison, in 1906, in a single experimental series, established tissue culture as a promising new technique in cell biology and settled the Golgi-Cajal controversy as to whether axonic processes originated as outgrowths from the cell body or were formed first in the intercellular spaces and were later connected to the cell body. Harrison observed process growth from nerve cells in cultures, thus settling the matter in favor of Cajal. Of great importance to neurobiology is the discovery by Rita Levi-Montalcini of nerve growth factor. Cultures of spinal ganglia played a major role in the discovery, isolation, and characterization of the factor (Levi-Montalcini et ai. , 1954). In my opinion, this discovery, although very well known, has not yet been adequately recognized for its germinal influence on neurobiology and embryology. Progress since the advent of clonal cultures has been more modest. I would like to cite two pieces of work which emphasize the technical ad vantages of these cultures.

Chloride Channels and Carriers in Nerve Muscle and Glial Cells

Author: F.J. Alvarez-Leefmans
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475796854
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This is a book about how Cl- crosses the cell membranes of nerve, muscle, and glial cells. Not so very many years ago, a pamphlet rather than book might have resulted from such an endeavor! One might ask why Cl-, the most abundant biological anion, attracted so little attention from investigators. The main reason was that the prevailing paradigm for cellular ion homeostasis in the 1950s and 1960s assigned Cl- a ther modynamically passive and unspecialized role. This view was particularly prominent among muscle and neuroscience investigators. In searching for reasons for such a negative (no pun intended) viewpoint, it seems to us that it stemmed from two key experimental observations. First, work on frog skeletal muscle showed that Cl- was passively distributed between the cytoplasm and the extracellular fluid. Second, work on Cl- transport in red blood cells confirmed that the Cl- transmembrane distribution was thermodynamically passive and, in addition, showed that Cl- crossed the mem brane extremely rapidly. This latter finding [for a long time interpreted as being the result of a high passive chloride electrical permeability(? CI)] made it quite likely that Cl- would remain at thermodynamic equilibrium. These two observations were gener alized and virtually all cells were thought to have a very high P Cl and a ther modynamically passive Cl- transmembrane distribution. These concepts can still be found in some physiology and neuroscience textbooks.

Culturing Nerve Cells

Author: Gary Banker
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262024389
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A do-it-yourself manual for culturing nerve cells, complete with recipes and protocols.

Nerve Muscle Interaction

Author: Gerta Vrbova
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401095418
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In the second century, Galen recognized that nerve and muscle were functionally inseparable since contraction of muscle occurred only if the nerves supplying that muscle were intact. He therefore concluded that the shortening of a muscle was controlled by the central nervous sytem while the extension of a muscle could occur in the absence of innervation. Nerves, he thought, were the means of transport for animal spirits to the muscles; the way in which animal spirits may bring about contraction dominated the study of muscle physiology from that time until the historical discovery of Galvani that muscle could be stimulated electrically and that nerve and muscle were themselves a source of electrical energy. It is now well known that nerves conduct electrically and that transmission from nerve to striated muscle is mediated by the chemical which is liberated from nerve terminals onto the muscle membrane. In vertebrates this chemical is acetylcholine (ACh). Thus the concept of spirits that are released from nerves and control muscle contraction directly, is no longer tenable. Nevertheless the concept of 'substances' transported down nerv~s which directly control many aspects of muscle has not been abandoned, and has in fact been frequently reinvoked to account for the long-term regula tion of many characteristics of muscle (see review by Gutmann, 1976) and for the maintenance of its structural integrity.

The Cultured Cell and Inherited Metabolic Disease

Author: R. Angus Harkness
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401166277
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The use of cultured cells in the clinical diagnosis of hereditary metabolic dis ease is a rapidly developing subject to which many different disciplines have brought their expertise and knowledge. A number of scientists who have in dividually contributed to the growth of the subject gave invited papers at the Fourteenth Symposium of the Society for the Study of Inborn Errors of Metabolism in the University of Edinburgh on 13-16th July, 1976. These papers form the basis of this monograph which brings together contributions from the basic sciences and from physicians concerned primarily with human disease. The cross-fertilization produced by this interdisciplinary communica tion was invaluable to those trying to understand and overcome diagnostic problems posed by hereditary metabolic disease. Cell culture methods and cell preservation techniques were described by D. G. Harnden and D. E. Pegg; Dr T. Elsdale outlined some of the factors which control in vitro cell growth and division. Cell culture methods and cryopreser vation techniques have allowed the wide distribution of biochemically abnor mal cells and their study over long periods of time. It is also evident that when a defect which produces severe metabolic disorder in man can be studied in the laboratory using isolated cell cultures a wide variety of investigative procedures can be focused on to the cellular defect without distress or discomfort to the patient or relatives.