The Phytochemical Landscape

Author: Mark D. Hunter
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 140088120X
Format: PDF
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The dazzling variation in plant chemistry is a primary mediator of trophic interactions, including herbivory, predation, parasitism, and disease. At the same time, such interactions feed back to influence spatial and temporal variation in the chemistry of plants. In this book, Mark Hunter provides a novel approach to linking the trophic interactions of organisms with the cycling of nutrients in ecosystems. Hunter introduces the concept of the "phytochemical landscape"—the shifting spatial and temporal mosaic of plant chemistry that serves as the nexus between trophic interactions and nutrient dynamics. He shows how plant chemistry is both a cause and consequence of trophic interactions, and how it also mediates ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. Nutrients and organic molecules in plant tissues affect decomposition rates and the fluxes of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The availability of these same nutrients influences the chemistry of cells and tissues that plants produce. In combination, these feedback routes generate pathways by which trophic interactions influence nutrient dynamics and vice versa, mediated through plant chemistry. Hunter provides evidence from terrestrial and aquatic systems for each of these pathways, and describes how a focus on the phytochemical landscape enables us to better understand and manage the ecosystems in which we live. Essential reading for students and researchers alike, this book offers an integrated approach to population-, community-, and ecosystem-level ecological processes.

The Theory of Ecological Communities MPB 57

Author: Mark Vellend
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400883792
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A plethora of different theories, models, and concepts make up the field of community ecology. Amid this vast body of work, is it possible to build one general theory of ecological communities? What other scientific areas might serve as a guiding framework? As it turns out, the core focus of community ecology—understanding patterns of diversity and composition of biological variants across space and time—is shared by evolutionary biology and its very coherent conceptual framework, population genetics theory. The Theory of Ecological Communities takes this as a starting point to pull together community ecology's various perspectives into a more unified whole. Mark Vellend builds a theory of ecological communities based on four overarching processes: selection among species, drift, dispersal, and speciation. These are analogues of the four central processes in population genetics theory—selection within species, drift, gene flow, and mutation—and together they subsume almost all of the many dozens of more specific models built to describe the dynamics of communities of interacting species. The result is a theory that allows the effects of many low-level processes, such as competition, facilitation, predation, disturbance, stress, succession, colonization, and local extinction to be understood as the underpinnings of high-level processes with widely applicable consequences for ecological communities. Reframing the numerous existing ideas in community ecology, The Theory of Ecological Communities provides a new way for thinking about biological composition and diversity.

Metacommunity Ecology

Author: Mathew A. Leibold
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400889065
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Metacommunity ecology links smaller-scale processes that have been the provenance of population and community ecology—such as birth-death processes, species interactions, selection, and stochasticity—with larger-scale issues such as dispersal and habitat heterogeneity. Until now, the field has focused on evaluating the relative importance of distinct processes, with niche-based environmental sorting on one side and neutral-based ecological drift and dispersal limitation on the other. This book moves beyond these artificial categorizations, showing how environmental sorting, dispersal, ecological drift, and other processes influence metacommunity structure simultaneously. Mathew Leibold and Jonathan Chase argue that the relative importance of these processes depends on the characteristics of the organisms, the strengths and types of their interactions, the degree of habitat heterogeneity, the rates of dispersal, and the scale at which the system is observed. Using this synthetic perspective, they explore metacommunity patterns in time and space, including patterns of coexistence, distribution, and diversity. Leibold and Chase demonstrate how these processes and patterns are altered by micro- and macroevolution, traits and phylogenetic relationships, and food web interactions. They then use this scale-explicit perspective to illustrate how metacommunity processes are essential for understanding macroecological and biogeographical patterns as well as ecosystem-level processes. Moving seamlessly across scales and subdisciplines, Metacommunity Ecology is an invaluable reference, one that offers a more integrated approach to ecological patterns and processes.

Communication Centers

Author: Kathleen J. Turner
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739190997
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Communication Centers: A Theory-Based Guide to Training and Management addresses what communication centers are and why they are valuable, examines their rich rhetorical roots, and offers advice to faculty who are asked to develop a communication center. Directors of established centers and peer tutors will also find valuable information.

Biodiversity

Author: Takuya Abe
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146121906X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Despite acknowledgment that loss of living diversity is an international biological crisis, the ecological causes and consequences of extinction have not yet been widely addressed. In honor of Edward O. Wilson, winner of the 1993 International Prize for Biology, an international group of distinguished biologists bring ecological, evolutionary, and management perspectives to the issue of biodiversity. The roles of ecosystem processes, community structure and population dynamics are considered in this book. The goal, as Wilson writes in his introduction, is "to assemble concepts that unite the disciplines of systematics and ecology, and in so doing to create a sound scientific basis for the future management of biodiversity."

Trophic Cascades

Author: John Terborgh
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 9781597268196
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Trophic cascades—the top-down regulation of ecosystems by predators—are an essential aspect of ecosystem function and well-being. Trophic cascades are often drastically disrupted by human interventions—for example, when wolves and cougars are removed, allowing deer and beaver to become destructive—yet have only recently begun to be considered in the development of conservation and management strategies. Trophic Cascades is the first comprehensive presentation of the science on this subject. It brings together some of the world’s leading scientists and researchers to explain the importance of large animals in regulating ecosystems, and to relate that scientific knowledge to practical conservation. Chapters examine trophic cascades across the world’s major biomes, including intertidal habitats, coastal oceans, lakes, nearshore ecosystems, open oceans, tropical forests, boreal and temperate ecosystems, low arctic scrubland, savannas, and islands. Additional chapters consider aboveground/belowground linkages, predation and ecosystem processes, consumer control by megafauna and fire, and alternative states in ecosystems. An introductory chapter offers a concise overview of trophic cascades, while concluding chapters consider theoretical perspectives and comparative issues. Trophic Cascades provides a scientific basis and justification for the idea that large predators and top-down forcing must be considered in conservation strategies, alongside factors such as habitat preservation and invasive species. It is a groundbreaking work for scientists and managers involved with biodiversity conservation and protection.

Ant Plant Interactions

Author: Paulo S. Oliveira
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110715975X
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ants are probably the most dominant insect family on earth, and flowering plants have been the dominant plant group on land for more than 100 million years. In recent decades, human activities have degraded natural environments with unparalleled speed and scale, making it increasingly apparent that interspecific interactions vary not only under different ecological conditions and across habitats, but also according to anthropogenic global change. This is the first volume entirely devoted to the anthropogenic effects on the interactions between these two major components of terrestrial ecosystems. A first-rate team of contributors report their research from a variety of temperate and tropical ecosystems worldwide, including South, Central and North America, Africa, Japan, Polynesia, Indonesia and Australia. It provides an in-depth summary of the current understanding for researchers already acquainted with insect-plant interactions, yet is written at a level to offer a window into the ecology of ant-plant interactions for the mostly uninitiated international scientific community.

Relationships of Natural Enemies and Non prey Foods

Author: Jonathan G. Lundgren
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402092350
Format: PDF, Docs
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Feeding on Non-Prey Resources by Natural Enemies Moshe Coll Reports on the consumption of non-prey food sources, particularly plant materials, by predators and parasitoids are common throughout the literature (reviewed recently by Naranjo and Gibson 1996, Coll 1998a, Coll and Guershon, 2002). Predators belonging to a variety of orders and families are known to feed on pollen and nectar, and adult parasitoids acquire nutrients from honeydew and floral and extrafloral nectar. A recent publication by Wäckers et al. (2005) discusses the p- visioning of plant resources to natural enemies from the perspective of the plant, exploring the evolutionary possibility that plants enhance their defenses by recru- ing enemies to food sources. The present volume, in contrast, presents primarily the enemies’ perspective, and as such is the first comprehensive review of the nut- tional importance of non-prey foods for insect predators and parasitoids. Although the ecological significance of feeding on non-prey foods has long been underappreciated, attempts have been made to manipulate nectar and pollen ava- ability in crop fields in order to enhance levels of biological pest control by natural enemies (van Emden, 1965; Hagen, 1986; Coll, 1998a). The importance of n- prey foods for the management of pest populations is also discussed in the book.

Seaweed Ecology and Physiology

Author: Catriona L. Hurd
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521145953
Format: PDF, Docs
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A synthesis of concepts and examples of how physiological processes influence seaweed communities worldwide, authored by experts in the field.

Biology of Earthworms

Author: Ayten Karaca
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642146367
Format: PDF, Docs
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Earthworms, which belong to the order Oligochaeta, comprise roughly 3,000 species grouped into five families. Earthworms have been called ‘ecosystem engineers’; much like human engineers, they change the structure of their environments. Earthworms are very versatile and are found in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems. They play an important role in forest and agricultural ecosystems. This Soil Biology volume describes the various facets of earthworms, such as their role in soil improvement, soil structure, and the biocontrol of soil-borne plant fungal diseases. Reviews discuss earthworms’ innate immune system, molecular markers to address various issues of earthworm ecology, earthworm population dynamics, and the influences of organic farming systems and tillage. Further topics include the characteristics of vermicompost, relationships between soil earthworms and enzymes, the role of spermathecae, copulatory behavior, and adjustment of the donated sperm volume.