The Proper Generalized Decomposition for Advanced Numerical Simulations

Author: Francisco Chinesta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319028650
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Many problems in scientific computing are intractable with classical numerical techniques. These fail, for example, in the solution of high-dimensional models due to the exponential increase of the number of degrees of freedom. Recently, the authors of this book and their collaborators have developed a novel technique, called Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) that has proven to be a significant step forward. The PGD builds by means of a successive enrichment strategy a numerical approximation of the unknown fields in a separated form. Although first introduced and successfully demonstrated in the context of high-dimensional problems, the PGD allows for a completely new approach for addressing more standard problems in science and engineering. Indeed, many challenging problems can be efficiently cast into a multi-dimensional framework, thus opening entirely new solution strategies in the PGD framework. For instance, the material parameters and boundary conditions appearing in a particular mathematical model can be regarded as extra-coordinates of the problem in addition to the usual coordinates such as space and time. In the PGD framework, this enriched model is solved only once to yield a parametric solution that includes all particular solutions for specific values of the parameters. The PGD has now attracted the attention of a large number of research groups worldwide. The present text is the first available book describing the PGD. It provides a very readable and practical introduction that allows the reader to quickly grasp the main features of the method. Throughout the book, the PGD is applied to problems of increasing complexity, and the methodology is illustrated by means of carefully selected numerical examples. Moreover, the reader has free access to the Matlab© software used to generate these examples.

A Journey Around the Different Scales Involved in the Description of Matter and Complex Systems

Author: Francisco Chinesta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319700014
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This SpringerBrief covers the main scales of description of matter, starting at its finest level, the quantum scale, moving through ab-initio, molecular dynamics, coarse grained approaches, to finish at the scale of kinetic theory models that allows a nice compromise between the rich but expensive microscopic descriptions and the computationally cheap but sometimes too coarse macroscopic descriptions. The book addresses undergraduate and graduate students, as well as beginners in multi-scale modeling of materials.

Model Reduction and Approximation

Author: Peter Benner
Publisher: SIAM
ISBN: 161197481X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Many physical, chemical, biomedical, and technical processes can be described by partial differential equations or dynamical systems. In spite of increasing computational capacities, many problems are of such high complexity that they are solvable only with severe simplifications, and the design of efficient numerical schemes remains a central research challenge. This book presents a tutorial introduction to recent developments in mathematical methods for model reduction and approximation of complex systems. Model Reduction and Approximation: Theory and Algorithms contains three parts that cover (I) sampling-based methods, such as the reduced basis method and proper orthogonal decomposition, (II) approximation of high-dimensional problems by low-rank tensor techniques, and (III) system-theoretic methods, such as balanced truncation, interpolatory methods, and the Loewner framework. It is tutorial in nature, giving an accessible introduction to state-of-the-art model reduction and approximation methods. It also covers a wide range of methods drawn from typically distinct communities (sampling based, tensor based, system-theoretic).?? This book is intended for researchers interested in model reduction and approximation, particularly graduate students and young researchers.

Distributed Order Dynamic Systems

Author: Zhuang Jiao
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1447128524
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Distributed-order differential equations, a generalization of fractional calculus, are of increasing importance in many fields of science and engineering from the behaviour of complex dielectric media to the modelling of nonlinear systems. This Brief will broaden the toolbox available to researchers interested in modeling, analysis, control and filtering. It contains contextual material outlining the progression from integer-order, through fractional-order to distributed-order systems. Stability issues are addressed with graphical and numerical results highlighting the fundamental differences between constant-, integer-, and distributed-order treatments. The power of the distributed-order model is demonstrated with work on the stability of noncommensurate-order linear time-invariant systems. Generic applications of the distributed-order operator follow: signal processing and viscoelastic damping of a mass–spring set up. A new general approach to discretization of distributed-order derivatives and integrals is described. The Brief is rounded out with a consideration of likely future research and applications and with a number of MATLAB® codes to reduce repetitive coding tasks and encourage new workers in distributed-order systems.

PGD Based Modeling of Materials Structures and Processes

Author: Francisco Chinesta
Publisher: Springer Science & Business
ISBN: 3319061828
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book focuses on the development of a new simulation paradigm allowing for the solution of models that up to now have never been resolved and which result in spectacular CPU time savings (in the order of millions) that, combined with supercomputing, could revolutionize future ICT (information and communication technologies) at the heart of science and technology. The authors have recently proposed a new paradigm for simulation-based engineering sciences called Proper Generalized Decomposition, PGD, which has proved a tremendous potential in many aspects of forming process simulation. In this book a review of the basics of the technique is made, together with different examples of application.

Biological Physical and Technical Basics of Cell Engineering

Author: Gerhard M. Artmann
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9811079048
Format: PDF
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This book presents and discusses recent scientific progress on Cell and Stem Cell Engineering. It predominantly focuses on Biological, Physical and Technical Basics, and features new trends of research reaching far into the 21st century.

Post Optimal Analysis in Linear Semi Infinite Optimization

Author: Miguel A. Goberna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 148998044X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Post-Optimal Analysis in Linear Semi-Infinite Optimization examines the following topics in regards to linear semi-infinite optimization: modeling uncertainty, qualitative stability analysis, quantitative stability analysis and sensitivity analysis. Linear semi-infinite optimization (LSIO) deals with linear optimization problems where the dimension of the decision space or the number of constraints is infinite. The authors compare the post-optimal analysis with alternative approaches to uncertain LSIO problems and provide readers with criteria to choose the best way to model a given uncertain LSIO problem depending on the nature and quality of the data along with the available software. This work also contains open problems which readers will find intriguing a challenging. Post-Optimal Analysis in Linear Semi-Infinite Optimization is aimed toward researchers, graduate and post-graduate students of mathematics interested in optimization, parametric optimization and related topics.

A Finite Element Primer for Beginners

Author: Tarek I. Zohdi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319090364
Format: PDF, ePub
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The purpose of this primer is to provide the basics of the Finite Element Method, primarily illustrated through a classical model problem, linearized elasticity. The topics covered are: (1) Weighted residual methods and Galerkin approximations, (2) A model problem for one-dimensional linear elastostatics, (3) Weak formulations in one dimension, (4) Minimum principles in one dimension, (5) Error estimation in one dimension, (5) Construction of Finite Element basis functions in one dimension, (6) Gaussian Quadrature, (7) Iterative solvers and element by element data structures, (8) A model problem for three-dimensional linear elastostatics, (9) Weak formulations in three dimensions, (10) Basic rules for element construction in three-dimensions, (11) Assembly of the system and solution schemes, (12) Assembly of the system and solution schemes, (13) An introduction to time-dependent problems and (14) A brief introduction to rapid computation based on domain decomposition and basic parallel processing.

Flows in Polymers Reinforced Polymers and Composites

Author: Christophe Binetruy
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331916757X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book gives a detailed and practical introduction to complex flows of polymers and reinforced polymers as well as the flow of simple fluids in complex microstructures. Over the last decades, an increasing number of functional and structural parts, made so far with metals, has been progressively reengineered by replacing metallic materials by polymers, reinforced polymers and composites. The motivation for this substitution may be the weight reduction, the simpler, cheaper or faster forming process, or the ability to exploit additional functionalities. The present Brief surveys modern developments related to the multi-scale modeling and simulation of polymers, reinforced polymers, that involve a flowing microstructure and continuous fiber-reinforced composites, wherein the fluid flows inside a nearly stationary multi-scale microstructure. These developments concern both multi-scale modeling, defining bridges between the micro and macro scales - with special emphasis on the mesoscopic scale at which kinetic theory descriptions apply and advanced simulation techniques able to address efficiently the ever more complex and detailed models defined at different scales. This book is addressed to students (Master and doctoral levels), researchers and professionals interested in computational rheology and material forming processes involving polymers, reinforced polymers and composites. It provides a unique coverage of the state of the art in these multi-disciplinary fields.

Simulating Social Complexity

Author: Bruce Edmonds
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540938133
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Social systems are among the most complex known. This poses particular problems for those who wish to understand them. The complexity often makes analytic approaches infeasible and natural language approaches inadequate for relating intricate cause and effect. However, individual- and agent-based computational approaches hold out the possibility of new and deeper understanding of such systems. Simulating Social Complexity examines all aspects of using agent- or individual-based simulation. This approach represents systems as individual elements having each their own set of differing states and internal processes. The interactions between elements in the simulation represent interactions in the target systems. What makes these elements "social" is that they are usefully interpretable as interacting elements of an observed society. In this, the focus is on human society, but can be extended to include social animals or artificial agents where such work enhances our understanding of human society. The phenomena of interest then result (emerge) from the dynamics of the interaction of social actors in an essential way and are usually not easily simplifiable by, for example, considering only representative actors. The introduction of accessible agent-based modelling allows the representation of social complexity in a more natural and direct manner than previous techniques. In particular, it is no longer necessary to distort a model with the introduction of overly strong assumptions simply in order to obtain analytic tractability. This makes agent-based modelling relatively accessible to a range of scientists. The outcomes of such models can be displayed and animated in ways that also make them more interpretable by experts and stakeholders. This handbook is intended to help in the process of maturation of this new field. It brings together, through the collaborative effort of many leading researchers, summaries of the best thinking and practice in this area and constitutes a reference point for standards against which future methodological advances are judged. This book will help those entering into the field to avoid "reinventing the wheel" each time, but it will also help those already in the field by providing accessible overviews of current thought. The material is divided into four sections: Introductory, Methodology, Mechanisms, and Applications. Each chapter starts with a very brief section called ‘Why read this chapter?’ followed by an abstract, which summarizes the content of the chapter. Each chapter also ends with a section of ‘Further Reading’ briefly describing three to eight items that a newcomer might read next.