The Quantum Vacuum

Author: Peter W. Milonni
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0080571492
Format: PDF
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In modern physics, the classical vacuum of tranquil nothingness has been replaced by a quantum vacuum with fluctuations of measurable consequence. In The Quantum Vacuum, Peter Milonni describes the concept of the vacuum in quantum physics with an emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. He elucidates in depth and detail the role of the vacuum electromagnetic field in spontaneous emission, the Lamb shift, van der Waals, and Casimir forces, and a variety of other phenomena, some of which are of technological as well as purely scientific importance. This informative text also provides an introduction based on fundamental vacuum processes to the ideas of relativistic quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, including renormalization and Feynman diagrams. Experimental as well as theoreticalaspects of the quantum vacuum are described, and in most cases details of mathematical derivations are included. Chapter 1 of The Quantum Vacuum - published in advance in The American Journal of Physics (1991)-was later selected by readers as one of the Most Memorable papers ever published in the 60-year history of the journal. This chapter provides anexcellent beginning of the book, introducing a wealth of information of historical interest, the results of which are carefully woven into subsequent chapters to form a coherent whole. Does not assume that the reader has taken advanced graduate courses, making the text accessible to beginning graduate students Emphasizes the basic physical ideas rather than the formal, mathematical aspects of the subject Provides a careful and thorough treatment of Casimir and van der Waals forces at a level of detail not found in any other book on this topic Clearly presents mathematical derivations

The Quantum Vacuum

Author: Peter W. Milonni
Publisher:
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
In modern physics, the classical vacuum of tranquil nothingness has been replaced by a quantum vacuum with fluctuations of measurable consequence. In The Quantum Vacuum, Peter Milonni describes the concept of the vacuum in quantum physics with an emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. He elucidates in depth and detail the role of the vacuum electromagnetic field in spontaneous emission, the Lamb shift, van der Waals, and Casimir forces, and a variety of other phenomena, some of which are of technological as well as purely scientific importance. This informative text also provides an introduction based on fundamental vacuum processes to the ideas of relativistic quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, including renormalization and Feynman diagrams. Experimental as well as theoreticalaspects of the quantum vacuum are described, and in most cases details of mathematical derivations are included. Chapter 1 of The Quantum Vacuum - published in advance in The American Journal of Physics (1991)-was later selected by readers as one of the Most Memorable papers ever published in the 60-year history of the journal. This chapter provides anexcellent beginning of the book, introducing a wealth of information of historical interest, the results of which are carefully woven into subsequent chapters to form a coherent whole. Key Features * Does not assume that the reader has taken advanced graduate courses, making the text accessible to beginning graduate students * Emphasizes the basic physical ideas rather than the formal, mathematical aspects of the subject * Provides a careful and thorough treatment of Casimir and van der Waals forces at a level of detail not found in any other book on this topic * Clearly presents mathematical derivations

The Quantum Vacuum An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics

Author: Peter W. Milonni
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9781493301614
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In modern physics, the classical vacuum of tranquil nothingness has been replaced by a quantum vacuum with fluctuations of measurable consequence. In The Quantum Vacuum, Peter Milonni describes the concept of the vacuum in quantum physics with an emphasis on quantum electrodynamics. He elucidates in depth and detail the role of the vacuum electromagnetic field in spontaneous emission, the Lamb shift, van der Waals, and Casimir forces, and a variety of other phenomena, some of which are of technological as well as purely scientific importance. This informative text also provides an introduction based on fundamental vacuum processes to the ideas of relativistic quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory, including renormalization and Feynman diagrams. Experimental as well as theoreticalaspects of the quantum vacuum are described, and in most cases details of mathematical derivations are included. Chapter 1 of The Quantum Vacuum - published in advance in "The American Journal of Physics" (1991)-was later selected by readers as one of the Most Memorable papers ever published in the 60-year history of the journal. This chapter provides anexcellent beginning of the book, introducing a wealth of information of historical interest, the results of which are carefully woven into subsequent chapters to form a coherent whole. Key Features * Does not assume that the reader has taken advanced graduate courses, making the text accessible to beginning graduate students * Emphasizes the basic physical ideas rather than the formal, mathematical aspects of the subject * Provides a careful and thorough treatment of Casimir and van der Waals forces at a level of detail not found in any other book on this topic * Clearly presents mathematical derivations

Forces of the Quantum Vacuum

Author: William M R Simpson
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company
ISBN: 9814644773
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Forces of the Quantum Vacuum presents a number of theoretical approaches to Casimir, van der Waals and Casimir–Polder forces that have been fruitfully employed in mainstream research, and also reviews the experimental evidence for Casimir forces. Beginning with basic ideas in quantum mechanics and building its way to a sophisticated form of macroscopic QED, the book provides an inspiring training manual for graduate students to develop in a natural progression the ideas needed for modern theoretical research on Casimir forces.

Probing the Quantum Vacuum

Author: Walter Dittrich
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 354045585X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is devoted to an investigation of the vacuum of quantum elec trodynamics (QED), relying on the perturbative effective action approach. If the vacuum is probed with external perturbations, the response of the system can be analyzed after averaging over the high energy degrees of freedom. This results in an effective description of the properties of the vacuum, which are comparable to the properties of a classical medium. We concentrate primarily on the physics of slowly varying fields or soft photons by integrating out the high energy degrees of freedom, i.e. the elec trons, employing Schwinger's proper time method. We derive a new represen tation of the one loop photon polarization tensor, coupling to all orders to an arbitrary constant electromagnetic field, fully maintaining the dependence on the complete set of invariants. On the basis of effective Lagrangians, we derive the light cone condition for low frequency photons propagating in strong fields. Our formalism can be extended to various external perturbations, such as temperature and Casimir situations. We give a proof of the "unified formula" for low energy phenom ena that describes the refractive indices of various perturbed quantum vacua. In the high energy domain, we observe similarities between a vacuum with a superstrong magnetic field and a magnetized plasma. The question of mea surability of the various effects is addressed; a violation of causality is not found.

Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell

Author: A. Zee
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9781400835324
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Since it was first published, Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell has quickly established itself as the most accessible and comprehensive introduction to this profound and deeply fascinating area of theoretical physics. Now in this fully revised and expanded edition, A. Zee covers the latest advances while providing a solid conceptual foundation for students to build on, making this the most up-to-date and modern textbook on quantum field theory available. This expanded edition features several additional chapters, as well as an entirely new section describing recent developments in quantum field theory such as gravitational waves, the helicity spinor formalism, on-shell gluon scattering, recursion relations for amplitudes with complex momenta, and the hidden connection between Yang-Mills theory and Einstein gravity. Zee also provides added exercises, explanations, and examples, as well as detailed appendices, solutions to selected exercises, and suggestions for further reading. The most accessible and comprehensive introductory textbook available Features a fully revised, updated, and expanded text Covers the latest exciting advances in the field Includes new exercises Offers a one-of-a-kind resource for students and researchers Leading universities that have adopted this book include: Arizona State University Boston University Brandeis University Brown University California Institute of Technology Carnegie Mellon College of William & Mary Cornell Harvard University Massachusetts Institute of Technology Northwestern University Ohio State University Princeton University Purdue University - Main Campus Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Rutgers University - New Brunswick Stanford University University of California - Berkeley University of Central Florida University of Chicago University of Michigan University of Montreal University of Notre Dame Vanderbilt University Virginia Tech University

Fast Light Slow Light and Left Handed Light

Author: P.W. Milonni
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420034332
Format: PDF
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The propagation of light in dispersive media is a subject of fundamental as well as practical importance. In recent years attention has focused in particular on how refractive index can vary with frequency in such a way that the group velocities of optical pulses can be much greater or much smaller than the speed of light in vacuum, or in which the refractive index can be negative. Treating these topics at an introductory to intermediate level, Fast Light, Slow Light and Left-Handed Light focuses on the basic theory and describes the significant experimental progress made during the past decade. The book pays considerable attention to the fact that superluminal group velocities are not in conflict with special relativity and to the role of quantum effects in preventing superluminal communication and violations of Einstein causality. It also explores some of the basic physics at the opposite extreme of very slow group velocities as well as stopped and regenerated light, including the concepts of electromagnetically induced transparency and dark-state polaritons. Another very active aspect of the subject discussed concerns the possibility of designing metamaterials in which the refractive index can be negative and propagating light is left-handed in the sense that the phase and group velocities are in opposite directions. The last two chapters are an introduction to some of the basic theory and consequences of negative refractive index, with emphasis on the seminal work carried out since 2000. The possibility that "perfect" lenses can be made from negative-index metamaterials-which has been perhaps the most controversial aspect of the field-is introduced and discussed in some detail.

The Quantum Vacuum

Author: Luciano Boi
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421402475
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A vacuum, classically understood, contains nothing. The quantum vacuum, on the other hand, is a seething cauldron of nothingness: particle pairs going in and out of existence continuously and rapidly while exerting influence over an enormous range of scales. Acclaimed mathematical physicist and natural philosopher Luciano Boi expounds the quantum vacuum, exploring the meaning of nothingness and its relationship with physical reality. Boi first provides a deep analysis of the interaction between geometry and physics at the quantum level. He next describes the relationship between the microscopic and macroscopic structures of the world. In so doing, Boi sheds light on the very nature of the universe, stressing in an original and profound way the relationship between quantum geometry and the internal symmetries underlying the behavior of matter and the interactions of forces. Beyond the physics and mathematics of the quantum vacuum, Boi offers a profoundly philosophical interpretation of the concept. Plato and Aristotle did not believe a vacuum was possible. How could nothing be something, they asked? Boi traces the evolution of the quantum vacuum from an abstract concept in ancient Greece to its fundamental role in quantum field theory and string theory in modern times. The quantum vacuum is a complex entity, one essential to understanding some of the most intriguing issues in twentieth-century physics, including cosmic singularity, dark matter and energy, and the existence of the Higgs boson particle. Boi explains with simple clarity the relevant theories and fundamental concepts of the quantum vacuum. Theoretical, mathematical, and particle physicists, as well as researchers and students of the history and philosophy of physics, will find The Quantum Vacuum to be a stimulating and engaging primer on the topic.

An Interpretive Introduction to Quantum Field Theory

Author: Paul Teller
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691016276
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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In a critically acclaimed work, philosophy professor Paul Teller lays forth the basic ideas of quantum field theory in a way that is understandable to readers who are familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Teller challenges philosophers to extend their thinking beyond the realm of quantum mechanics; and he challenges physicists to consider the philosophical issues that their explorations have encouraged.

An Introduction to Non Perturbative Foundations of Quantum Field Theory

Author: Franco Strocchi
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191651346
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Quantum Field Theory (QFT) has proved to be the most useful strategy for the description of elementary particle interactions and as such is regarded as a fundamental part of modern theoretical physics. In most presentations, the emphasis is on the effectiveness of the theory in producing experimentally testable predictions, which at present essentially means Perturbative QFT. However, after more than fifty years of QFT, we still are in the embarrassing situation of not knowing a single non-trivial (even non-realistic) model of QFT in 3+1 dimensions, allowing a non-perturbative control. As a reaction to these consistency problems one may take the position that they are related to our ignorance of the physics of small distances and that QFT is only an effective theory, so that radically new ideas are needed for a consistent quantum theory of relativistic interactions (in 3+1 dimensions). The book starts by discussing the conflict between locality or hyperbolicity and positivity of the energy for relativistic wave equations, which marks the origin of quantum field theory, and the mathematical problems of the perturbative expansion (canonical quantization, interaction picture, non-Fock representation, asymptotic convergence of the series etc.). The general physical principles of positivity of the energy, Poincare' covariance and locality provide a substitute for canonical quantization, qualify the non-perturbative foundation and lead to very relevant results, like the Spin-statistics theorem, TCP symmetry, a substitute for canonical quantization, non-canonical behaviour, the euclidean formulation at the basis of the functional integral approach, the non-perturbative definition of the S-matrix (LSZ, Haag-Ruelle-Buchholz theory). A characteristic feature of gauge field theories is Gauss' law constraint. It is responsible for the conflict between locality of the charged fields and positivity, it yields the superselection of the (unbroken) gauge charges, provides a non-perturbative explanation of the Higgs mechanism in the local gauges, implies the infraparticle structure of the charged particles in QED and the breaking of the Lorentz group in the charged sectors. A non-perturbative proof of the Higgs mechanism is discussed in the Coulomb gauge: the vector bosons corresponding to the broken generators are massive and their two point function dominates the Goldstone spectrum, thus excluding the occurrence of massless Goldstone bosons. The solution of the U(1) problem in QCD, the theta vacuum structure and the inevitable breaking of the chiral symmetry in each theta sector are derived solely from the topology of the gauge group, without relying on the semiclassical instanton approximation.