The Risk of Downward Mobility in Educational Attainment

Author: Sophie Hahn
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3658145986
Format: PDF, Docs
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Sophie Hahn analyses downward mobility in educational attainment from a sociological life-course perspective. In order to avoid status loss children of higher-educated parents have to persevere through long educational careers. How large is their risk of intergenerational downward mobility in educational attainment and how does it shape their educational pathways? Does their parents’ education still play a role in decisions at late stages of the educational career such as dropping out of and re-entering higher education? Drawing on retrospective longitudinal data of the German National Education Panel Study (NEPS) this book addresses these questions.

A Life Course Perspective on Migration and Integration

Author: Matthias Wingens
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400715455
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Over the last four decades the sociological life course approach with its focus on the interplay of structure and agency over time life course perspective has become an important research perspective in the social sciences. Yet, while it has successfully been applied to almost all fields of social inquiry it is much less used in research studying migrant populations and their integration patterns. This is puzzling since understanding immigrants’ integration requires just the kind of dynamic research approach this approach puts forward: any integration theory actually refers to life course processes. This volume shows fruitful cross-linkages between the two research traditions. A range of studies are presented that all apply sociological life course concepts to research on migrants and migrant groups in Europe. The book is organized thematically, indicating different important domains in the life course. Using a wide variety of methodological approaches, it covers both quantitative studies based on population census data and survey material as well as qualitative studies based on interviews. Attention is paid to the life courses of those who migrated themselves as well as their offspring. The studies cover different European countries, relating to one national context or a particular local setting in a city as well as cross-country comparisons. Overall the book shows that applying the sociological life course approach to migration and integration research may advance our understanding of immigrant settlement patterns as well as further develop the life course perspective

Analyzing Inequality

Author: Stefan Svallfors
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804757577
Format: PDF
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An examination of the state of the art in stratification research, looking at data, methods, theory, and new empirical findings in social inequality, life course, and cross-national comparative sociology.

The Oxford Handbook of Human Development and Culture

Author: Lene Arnett Jensen
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199948550
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The Oxford Handbook of Human Development and Culture provides a comprehensive synopsis of theory and research on human development, with every chapter drawing together findings from cultures around the world. This includes a focus on cultural diversity within nations, cultural change, and globalization. Expertly edited by Lene Arnett Jensen, the Handbook covers the entire lifespan from the prenatal period to old age. It delves deeply into topics such as the development of emotion, language, cognition, morality, creativity, and religion, as well as developmental contexts such as family, friends, civic institutions, school, media, and work. Written by an international group of eminent and cutting-edge experts, chapters showcase the burgeoning interdisciplinary approach to scholarship that bridges universal and cultural perspectives on human development. This "cultural-developmental approach" is a multifaceted, flexible, and dynamic way to conceptualize theory and research that is in step with the cultural and global realities of human development in the 21st century.

Childlessness in Europe Contexts Causes and Consequences

Author: Michaela Kreyenfeld
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319446673
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This open access book provides an overview of childlessness throughout Europe. It offers a collection of papers written by leading demographers and sociologists that examine contexts, causes, and consequences of childlessness in countries throughout the region.The book features data from all over Europe. It specifically highlights patterns of childlessness in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Austria and Switzerland. An additional chapter on childlessness in the United States puts the European experience in perspective. The book offers readers such insights as the determinants of lifelong childlessness, whether governments can and should counteract increasing childlessness, how the phenomenon differs across social strata and the role economic uncertainties play. In addition, the book also examines life course dynamics and biographical patterns, assisted reproduction as well as the consequences of childlessness. Childlessness has been increasing rapidly in most European countries in recent decades. This book offers readers expert analysis into this issue from leading experts in the field of family behavior. From causes to consequences, it explores the many facets of childlessness throughout Europe to present a comprehensive portrait of this important demographic and sociological trend.

U S Health in International Perspective

Author: National Research Council
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309264146
Format: PDF
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The United States is among the wealthiest nations in the world, but it is far from the healthiest. Although life expectancy and survival rates in the United States have improved dramatically over the past century, Americans live shorter lives and experience more injuries and illnesses than people in other high-income countries. The U.S. health disadvantage cannot be attributed solely to the adverse health status of racial or ethnic minorities or poor people: even highly advantaged Americans are in worse health than their counterparts in other, "peer" countries. In light of the new and growing evidence about the U.S. health disadvantage, the National Institutes of Health asked the National Research Council (NRC) and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to convene a panel of experts to study the issue. The Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among High-Income Countries examined whether the U.S. health disadvantage exists across the life span, considered potential explanations, and assessed the larger implications of the findings. U.S. Health in International Perspective presents detailed evidence on the issue, explores the possible explanations for the shorter and less healthy lives of Americans than those of people in comparable countries, and recommends actions by both government and nongovernment agencies and organizations to address the U.S. health disadvantage.

Families in an Era of Increasing Inequality

Author: Paul R. Amato
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319083082
Format: PDF, ePub
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The widening gap between the rich and the poor is turning the American dream into an impossibility for many, particularly children and families. And as the children of low-income families grow to adulthood, they have less access to opportunities and resources than their higher-income peers--and increasing odds of repeating the experiences of their parents. Families in an Era of Increasing Inequality probes the complex relations between social inequality and child development and examines possibilities for disrupting these ongoing patterns. Experts across the social sciences track trends in marriage, divorce, employment, and family structure across socioeconomic strata in the U.S. and other developed countries. These family data give readers a deeper understanding of how social class shapes children's paths to adulthood and how those paths continue to diverge over time and into future generations. In addition, contributors critique current policies and programs that have been created to reduce disparities and offer suggestions for more effective alternatives. Among the topics covered: Inequality begins at home: the role of parenting in the diverging destinies of rich and poor children. Inequality begins outside the home: putting parental educational investments into context. How class and family structure impact the transition to adulthood. Dealing with the consequences of changes in family composition. Dynamic models of poverty-related adversity and child outcomes. The diverging destinies of children and what it means for children's lives. As new initiatives are sought to improve the lives of families and children in the short and long term, Families in an Era of Increasing Inequality is a key resource for researchers and practitioners in family studies, social work, health, education, sociology, demography, and psychology.

The Structure of the Life Course Standardized Individualized Differentiated

Author: Ross Macmillan
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080457192
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Current debates in life course studies increasingly reference theories of individualization, standardization, and differentiation in the structure of the life course. This volume brings together leading scholars from a variety of fields to assess the theoretical underpinnings, the empirical evidence, and the implications of existing arguments. The contributions include comparative-historical work, demographic analysis, and detailed survey research. The topics covered include historical, cross-cultural, and racioethnic variation in the transition to adulthood, the school-to-work transition, educational careers, retirement, activity characteristics over the life span and the life course context of psychological well-being. The various contributions expand our understanding of the contemporary life course and its implications. The authors offer innovative theoretical and methodological approaches that demonstrate the utility of holistic approaches to conceptualizing the life course and understanding its implications for modern society.

Education and Social Mobility

Author: Phillip Brown
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317311655
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The study of education and social mobility has been a key area of sociological research since the 1950s. The importance of this research derives from the systematic analysis of functionalist theories of industrialism. Functionalist theories assume that the complementary demands of efficiency and justice result in more ‘meritocratic’ societies, characterized by high rates of social mobility. Much of the sociological evidence has cast doubt on this optimistic, if not utopian, claim that reform of the education system could eliminate the influence of class, gender and ethnicity on academic performance and occupational destinations. This book brings together sixteen cutting-edge articles on education and social mobility. It also includes an introductory essay offering a guide to the main issues and controversies addressed by authors from several countries. This comprehensive volume makes an important contribution to our theoretical and empirical understanding of the changing relationship between origins, education and destinations. This timely collection is?also relevant to policy-makers as education and social mobility are firmly back on both national and global political agendas, viewed as key to creating fairer societies and more competitive economies. This book was originally published as a special issue of the British Journal of Sociology of Education.