The Robot s Rebellion

Author: Keith E. Stanovich
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 0226771253
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Responds to the idea that humans are merely survival mechanisms for their own genes, providing the tools to advance human interests over the interests of the replicators through rational self-determination.

The Robot s Rebellion

Author: Keith E. Stanovich
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226770895
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The idea that we might be robots is no longer the stuff of science fiction; decades of research in evolutionary biology and cognitive science have led many esteemed scientists to the conclusion that, according to the precepts of universal Darwinism, humans are merely the hosts for two replicators (genes and memes) that have no interest in us except as conduits for replication. Richard Dawkins, for example, jolted us into realizing that we are just survival mechanisms for our own genes, sophisticated robots in service of huge colonies of replicators to whom concepts of rationality, intelligence, agency, and even the human soul are irrelevant. Accepting and now forcefully responding to this decentering and disturbing idea, Keith Stanovich here provides the tools for the "robot's rebellion," a program of cognitive reform necessary to advance human interests over the limited interest of the replicators and define our own autonomous goals as individual human beings. He shows how concepts of rational thinking from cognitive science interact with the logic of evolution to create opportunities for humans to structure their behavior to serve their own ends. These evaluative activities of the brain, he argues, fulfill the need that we have to ascribe significance to human life. We may well be robots, but we are the only robots who have discovered that fact. Only by recognizing ourselves as such, argues Stanovich, can we begin to construct a concept of self based on what is truly singular about humans: that they gain control of their lives in a way unique among life forms on Earth—through rational self-determination.

What Intelligence Tests Miss

Author: Keith E. Stanovich
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300142536
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Critics of intelligence tests writers such as Robert Sternberg, Howard Gardner, and Daniel Goleman have argued in recent years that these tests neglect important qualities such as emotion, empathy, and interpersonal skills. However, such critiques imply that though intelligence tests may miss certain key noncognitive areas, they encompass most of what is important in the cognitive domain. In this book, Keith E. Stanovich challenges this widely held assumption.Stanovich shows that IQ tests (or their proxies, such as the SAT) are radically incomplete as measures of cognitive functioning. They fail to assess traits that most people associate with good thinking, skills such as judgment and decision making. Such cognitive skills are crucial to real-world behavior, affecting the way we plan, evaluate critical evidence, judge risks and probabilities, and make effective decisions. IQ tests fail to assess these skills of rational thought, even though they are measurable cognitive processes. Rational thought is just as important as intelligence, Stanovich argues, and it should be valued as highly as the abilities currently measured on intelligence tests.

Who Is Rational

Author: Keith E. Stanovich
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135687552
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Integrating a decade-long program of empirical research with current cognitive theory, this book demonstrates that psychological research has profound implications for current debates about what it means to be rational. The author brings new evidence to bear on these issues by demonstrating that patterns of individual differences--largely ignored in disputes about human rationality--have strong implications for explanations of the gap between normative and descriptive models of human behavior. Separate chapters show how patterns of individual differences have implications for all of the major critiques of purported demonstrations of human irrationality in the heuristics and biases literature. In these critiques, it has been posited that experimenters have observed performance errors rather than systematically irrational responses; the tasks have required computational operations that exceed human cognitive capacity; experimenters have applied the wrong normative model to the task; and participants have misinterpreted the tasks. In a comprehensive set of studies, Stanovich demonstrates that gaps between normative and descriptive models of performance on some tasks can be accounted for by positing these alternative explanations, but that not all discrepancies from normative models can be so explained. Individual differences in rational thought can in part be predicted by psychological dispositions that are interpreted as characteristic biases in people's intentional-level psychologies. Presenting the most comprehensive examination of individual differences in the heuristics and biases literature that has yet been published, experiments and theoretical insights in this volume contextualize the heuristics and biases literature exemplified in the work of various investigators.

The Rationality Quotient

Author: Keith E. Stanovich
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262034840
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Preface -- Acknowledgements -- Theoretical underpinnings -- Definitions of rationality in philosophy, cognitive science, and lay discourse -- Rationality, intelligence, and the functional architecture of the mind -- Overcoming miserly processing : detection, override, and mindware -- A framework for the comprehensive assessment of rational thinking (CART) -- The components of rational thought assessed by the CART -- Probabilistic and statistical reasoning -- Scientific reasoning -- Avoidance of miserly information processing : direct tests -- Avoidance of miserly information processing : indirect effects -- Probabilistic numeracy, financial literacy, sensitivity to expected value, and risk knowledge -- Contaminated mindware -- The dispositions and attitudes of rationality -- Comprehensive rational thinking assessment : data and conclusions -- Associations among the subtests : a short-form CART -- Associations among the subtests : the full-form CART -- The CART : context, caveats, and questions -- The social and practical implications of a rational thinking test -- Appendix: Structure and sample items for the subtests and scales of the comprehensive assessment of rational thinking -- References -- Index

Rationality and the Reflective Mind

Author: Keith Stanovich
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780195341140
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The author attempts to resolve the debate about how much irrationality to ascribe to human cognition. He shows how the insights of dual-process theory and evolutionary psychology can be combined to explain why humans are sometimes irrational even though they possess cognitive machinery of remarkable adaptiveness.

The Selfish Gene

Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780192860927
Format: PDF, ePub
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An ethologist shows man to be a gene machine whose world is one of savage competition and deceit

Cultural Evolution

Author: Kate Distin
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521189713
Format: PDF, ePub
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Expounds a theory of cultural evolution and shows how it can help us to understand the development of human culture.

How to Think Straight about Psychology

Author: Keith E. Stanovich
Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
ISBN: 9780205512652
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Keith Stanovich's widely used and highly acclaimed book helps students become more discriminating consumers of psychological information, helping them recognize pseudoscience and be able to distinguish it from true psychological research. Stanovich helps instructors teach critical thinking skills within the rich context of psychology. It is the leading text of its kind.How to Think Straight About Psychology says about the discipline of psychology what many instructors would like to say but haven't found a way to. That is one reason adopters have called it "an instructor's dream text" and often comment "I wish I had written it. It tells my students just what I want them to hear about psychology".

Why Think

Author: Ronald de Sousa
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198040934
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In a world where natural selection has shaped adaptations of astonishing ingenuity, what is the scope and unique power of rational thinking? In this short but wide-ranging book, philosopher Ronald de Sousa looks at the twin set of issues surrounding the power of natural selection to mimic rational design, and rational thinking as itself a product of natural selection. While we commonly deem ourselves superior to other species, the logic of natural selection should not lead us to expect that nature does everything for the best. Similarly, rational action does not always promote the best possible outcomes. So what is the difference? Is the pursuit of rationality actually an effective strategy? Part of the answer lies in language, including mathematics and science. Language is the most striking device by which we have made ourselves smarter than our nearest primate cousins. Sometimes the purely instinctual responses we share with other animals put explicit reasoning to shame: the movements of a trained athlete are faster and more accurate than anything she could explicitly calculate. Language, however, with its power to abstract from concrete experience and to range over all aspects of nature, enables breathtakingly precise calculations, which have taken us to the moon and beyond. Most importantly, however, language enables us to formulate an endless multiplicity of values, in potential conflict with one another as well as with instinctual imperatives. In short, this sophisticated and entertaining book shows how our rationality and our irrationality are inextricably intertwined. Ranging over a wide array of evidence, it explores the true ramifications of being human in the natural world.