The Science of Perception and Memory

Author: Daniel Reisberg
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 019982696X
Format: PDF, Docs
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"A robbery victim tries to remember how the crime unfolded and who was present at the scene. A medical patient recalls the doctor saying that the pain in her side wasn't worrisome, and now that the tumor is much larger, she's suing. An investigation of insider trading hinges on someone's memory of exactly what was said at a particular business meeting. In these and countless other examples, our ability to remember our experiences is crucial for the justice system. The problem, though, is that perception and memory are fallible. How often do our eyes or memories deceive us? Is there some way to avoid these errors, perhaps by gathering our memory-based evidence in just the right way? Can we specify the circumstances in which perceptual or memory errors are more or less likely to occur? Professor Daniel Reisberg tackles these questions, drawing on the available science and also his experience in training attorneys. He provides detailed pragmatic advice that will prove helpful to law enforcement, prosecutors, defenders, and anyone else who hopes to maximize the quality of the evidence available to the courts--whether the evidence is coming from witnesses, victims, or defendants. This book is carefully rooted in research but written in a way that will make it fully accessible to non-scientists working in the justice system. Early chapters provide an overview of the relevant science--including how the research proceeds--and a broad portrait of how perception and memory function. Later chapters offer practical solutions for navigating situations involving eyewitness identifications, remembered conversations, evidence obtained from interviews with children, confession evidence and, along with it, the risks of false confession"--

Popular Myths about Memory

Author: Brian H. Bornstein
Publisher: Lexington Books
ISBN: 0739192191
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In Popular Myths about Memory, Brian H. Bornstein confronts popular myths about memory with scientific evidence on memory permanence, recovered memory and repression, amnesia, eyewitness memory, superior memory, and other topics. This book is recommended for scholars interested in psychology, media and film studies, communication studies, and sociology.

The Jury Under Fire

Author: Edie Greene
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190201347
Format: PDF
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Although the jury is often referred to as one of the bulwarks of the American justice system, it regularly comes under attack. Recent changes to trial procedures, such as reducing jury size, allowing non-unanimous verdicts, and rewriting jury instructions in plain English, were designed to promote greater efficiency and adherence to the law. Other changes, such as capping damages and replacing jurors with judges as arbiters in complex trials, seem designed to restrict the role of laypeople in trial outcomes. Whether these innovations are implemented to facilitate the administration of justice or due to the belief that juries have excessive power and make irrational decisions, they raise a host of questions about their effects on juries' judgments and about justice. Policymakers sometimes make incorrect assumptions about jury behavior, with the result that some reform efforts have had surprising and unintended consequences. The Jury Under Fire reviews a number of controversial beliefs about juries as well as the implications of these views for jury reform. It reviews up-to-date research on both criminal and civil juries that uses a variety of research methodologies: simulations, archival analyses, field studies, and juror interviews. Each chapter focuses on a mistaken assumption or myth about jurors or juries, critiques these myths, and then uses social science research findings to suggest appropriate reforms. Chapters discuss the experience of serving as a juror; jury selection and jury size; and the impact of evidence from eyewitnesses, experts, confessions, and juvenile offenders. The book also covers the process of deciding damages and punishment and the role of emotions in jurors' decision making, and it compares jurors' and judges' decisions. Finally, it reviews a broad range of efforts to reform the jury, including the most promising reforms that have a solid backing in research. Featuring highly visible trials to illustrate key points, The Jury Under Fire will interest researchers in psychology and the law, practicing attorneys, and policymakers, as well as students and trainees in these areas.

Learning and Memory

Author: Barry Schwartz
Publisher: W. W. Norton
ISBN: 9780393959116
Format: PDF, Docs
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This new textbook offers at once an introduction to learning, its early Pavlovian and operant origins up through the most recent developments, and complete coverage of the psychology of human memory from acquisition and storage to retrieval and forgetting. But unlike other textbook authors who rely primarily on an historical associationist linkage between learning and memory, Barry Schwartz and Daniel Reisberg take a cognitive approach to integrating the two fields.

Eine kurze Geschichte der Menschheit

Author: Yuval Noah Harari
Publisher: DVA
ISBN: 364110498X
Format: PDF
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Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.

Cognition

Author: Daniel Reisberg
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780393938678
Format: PDF, Mobi
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One of the most successful cognitive psychology texts ever published: up-to-date, authoritative, and clearly written.

The Cognition Workbook

Author: Daniel Reisberg
Publisher: W W Norton & Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9780393919325
Format: PDF, Docs
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The Cognition Workbook contains engaging essays on research methodology and applications to topics like the legal system and education. Students are offered numerous hands-on activities to try themselves, including demonstrations of articulatory rehearsal loops, common errors in judgment and reasoning, the effect of practice on the cognitive unconscious, and many more. The new edition includes many new essays, activities, and demonstrations that focus on the real-world applications of cognitive psychology, and builds a bridge between the course and students own concerns."

Psychology

Author: Henry Gleitman
Publisher: W W Norton & Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9780393977684
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Since it first appeared twenty-five years ago, Psychology has been widely recognized as the most cohesive overview of the discipline. Drawing from the liberal arts and natural sciences and emphasizing psychology's historical dimensions, this gold-standard text shows students how and why psychology is relevant in their lives and to the other disciplines they are studying.The Seventh Edition introduces a new four-part structure that highlights the central issues that motivate psychological research and previews them through thought-provoking introductory essays. Throughout, the part reorganization is reinforced by carefully refined questions and themes, providing a coherent and exciting view of psychology today.

12 Rules For Life

Author: Jordan B. Peterson
Publisher: Goldmann Verlag
ISBN: 3641239842
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Der Nr.1-Bestseller aus den USA: Wie man in einer von Chaos und Irrsinn regierten Welt bei Verstand bleibt! Wie können wir in der modernen Welt überleben? Jordan B. Peterson beantwortet diese Frage humorvoll, überraschend und informativ. Er erklärt, warum wir Kinder beim Skateboarden alleine lassen sollten, welches grausame Schicksal diejenigen ereilt, die alles allzu schnell kritisieren und warum wir Katzen, die wir auf der Straße antreffen, immer streicheln sollten. Doch was bitte erklärt uns das Nervensystem eines Hummers über unsere Erfolgschancen im Leben? Und warum beteten die alten Ägypter die Fähigkeit zu genauer Beobachtung als höchste Gottheit an? Dr. Peterson diskutiert Begriffe wie Disziplin, Freiheit, Abenteuer und Verantwortung und kondensiert Wahrheit und Weisheit der Welt in 12 praktischen Lebensregeln. »12 Rules For Life« erschüttert die Grundannahmen von moderner Wissenschaft, Glauben und menschlicher Natur. Dieses Buch verändert Ihr Leben garantiert!