The Sciences of the Artificial

Author: Herbert A. Simon
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262264495
Format: PDF, Docs
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Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools -- chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms -- for analyzing complexity and complex systems. There are updates throughout the book as well. These take into account important advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. The chapter "Economic Reality" has also been revised to reflect a change in emphasis in Simon's thinking about the respective roles of organizations and markets in economic systems.

Models of Discovery

Author: Herbert A. Simon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401095213
Format: PDF
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We respect Herbert A. Simon as an established leader of empirical and logical analysis in the human sciences while we happily think of him as also the loner; of course he works with many colleagues but none can match him. He has been writing fruitfully and steadily for four decades in many fields, among them psychology, logic, decision theory, economics, computer science, management, production engineering, information and control theory, operations research, confirmation theory, and we must have omitted several. With all of them, he is at once the technical scientist and the philosophical critic and analyst. When writing of decisions and actions, he is at the interface of philosophy of science, decision theory, philosophy of the specific social sciences, and inventory theory (itself, for him, at the interface of economic theory, production engineering and information theory). When writing on causality, he is at the interface of methodology, metaphysics, logic and philosophy of physics, systems theory, and so on. Not that the interdisciplinary is his orthodoxy; we are delighted that he has chosen to include in this book both his early and little-appreciated treatment of straightforward philosophy of physics - the axioms of Newtonian mechanics, and also his fine papers on pure confirmation theory.

Economics Bounded Rationality and the Cognitive Revolution

Author: The late Herbert A. Simon
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 9781781008225
Format: PDF, Docs
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The purpose of this book is to publish the ideas of the late Herbert Simon and sympathetic economists, on the subject of bounded rationality, economics, cognitive science and related disciplines, and to reprint some of Professor Simon's classic papers which have appeared in journals not widely read by economists. Not only on account of his Nobel Prize in Economics, but also because of the widespread applications of his ideas and theories, it is especially valuable to readers to have a book of this kind at the present time. Currently in this whole field, there is increasing emphasis on computer-related theory building. Herbert Simon, beginning from the time when microcomputers did not exist, was a pioneer of this approach. The book begins with an edited transcript of a colloquium, held between Herbert Simon and a group of Italian economists in Italy in 1988. It continues with the reprinted Simon papers and papers by three scholars, Raymond Boudon, Massimo Egidi and Riccardo Viale coming from different disciplines but holding a common interest in bounded rationality and ends with a response by a sympathetic economist, Robin Marris.

Complex Information Processing

Author: David Klahr
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134739419
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Here, several leading experts in the area of cognitive science summarize their current research programs, tracing Herbert A. Simon's influence on their own work -- and on the field of information processing at large. Topics covered include problem- solving, imagery, reading, writing, memory, expertise, instruction, and learning. Collectively, the chapters reveal a high degree of coherence across the various specialized disciplines within cognition -- a coherence largely attributable to the initial unity in Simon's seminal and pioneering contributions.

Reason in Human Affairs

Author: Herbert Simon
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 0804766681
Format: PDF, Kindle
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What can reason (or more broadly, thinking) do for us and what can't it do? This is the question examined by Herbert A. Simon, who received the 1978 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences "for his pioneering work on decision-making processes in economic organizations." The ability to apply reason to the choice of actions is supposed to be one of the defining characteristics of our species. In the first two chapters, the author explores the nature and limits of human reason, comparing and evaluating the major theoretical frameworks that have been erected to explain reasoning processes. He also discusses the interaction of thinking and emotion in the choice of our actions. In the third and final chapter, the author applies the theory of bounded rationality to social institutions and human behavior, and points out the problems created by limited attention span human inability to deal with more than one difficult problem at a time. He concludes that we must recognize the limitations on our capabilities for rational choice and pursue goals that, in their tentativeness and flexibility, are compatible with those limits.

Artificial Life

Author: Christopher G. Langton
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262621120
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book brings together a series of overview articles that appeared in the first three issues of the groundbreaking journal Artificial Life.

Scientific Discovery

Author: Pat Langley
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262620529
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Scientific discovery is often regarded as romantic and creative -- and hence unanalyzable -- whereas the everyday process of verifying discoveries is sober and more suited to analysis. Yet this fascinating exploration of how scientific work proceeds argues that however sudden the moment of discovery may seem, the discovery process can be described and modeled. Using the methods and concepts of contemporary information-processing psychology (or cognitive science) the authors develop a series of artificial-intelligence programs that can simulate the human thought processes used to discover scientific laws. The programs -- BACON, DALTON, GLAUBER, and STAHL -- are all largely data-driven, that is, when presented with series of chemical or physical measurements they search for uniformities and linking elements, generating and checking hypotheses and creating new concepts as they go along. Scientific Discovery examines the nature of scientific research and reviews the arguments for and against a normative theory of discovery; describes the evolution of the BACON programs, which discover quantitative empirical laws and invent new concepts; presents programs that discover laws in qualitative and quantitative data; and ties the results together, suggesting how a combined and extended program might find research problems, invent new instruments, and invent appropriate problem representations. Numerous prominent historical examples of discoveries from physics and chemistry are used as tests for the programs and anchor the discussion concretely in the history of science.

Simulation For The Social Scientist

Author: Gilbert, Nigel
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
ISBN: 9780335216000
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Social sciences -- Simulation methods. Social interaction -- Computer simulation. Social sciences -- Mathematical models. (publisher)

Introduction to Knowledge Systems

Author: Mark Stefik
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0080509169
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Focusing on fundamental scientific and engineering issues, this book communicates the principles of building and using knowledge systems from the conceptual standpoint as well as the practical. Previous treatments of knowledge systems have focused on applications within a particular field, or on symbol-level representations, such as the use of frame and rule representations. Introduction to Knowledge Systems presents fundamentals of symbol-level representations including representations for time, space, uncertainty, and vagueness. It also compares the knowledge-level organizations for three common knowledge-intensive tasks: classification, configuration, and diagnosis. The art of building knowledge systems incorporates computer science theory, programming practice, and psychology. The scope of this book is appropriately broad, ranging from the design of hierarchical search algorithms to techniques for acquiring the task-specific knowledge needed for successful applications. Each chapter proceeds from concepts to applications, and closes with a brief tour of current research topics and open issues. Readers will come away with a solid foundation that will enable them to create real-world knowledge systems using whatever tools and programming languages are most current and appropriate.