The Sociology of Islam

Author: Tugrul Keskin
Publisher: UWA Publishing
ISBN: 9780863724251
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The contributions of Islam to world civilization are undeniable. However, in the last 100 years, Muslims have been confronted with the effects and ramifications of modernity, caused by the emergence of global capitalism. What does modernity ultimately mean for Muslims? How will the historical precepts of Islam meet the changes in our globalized world? To date, most scholars on Islam have tried to understand Muslim societies from historical observation alone. This simplistic academic approach does not allow us to understand the entire transformation that has taken place in Muslim societies. Sociological scholarship, on the other hand, argues that it would be difficult to understand Islam without first understanding the theoretical and practical underpinnings of the social structure of Muslim societies, which are embedded in the relationship between religion, the economy, politics, and society. This book - now available in paperback - makes a connection between the economic system and its social and political consequences in Muslim societies. It examines the role of Islam within Muslim societies in the context of ongoing and increasingly powerful, neoliberal, economic processes in a globalized world, and the way in which Islam influences the West because of the interdependent relations brought about by the global economy. These interdependencies create social and political transformation on both sides.

Islam and the Politics of Secularism

Author: Nurullah Ardiç
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415671663
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book examines the process of secularization in the Middle East in the late 19th and early 20th century through an analysis of the transformation and abolition of Islamic Caliphate. Focusing on debates in both the center of the Caliphate and its periphery, the author argues that the relationship between Islam and secularism was one of accommodation, rather than simply conflict and confrontation, because Islam was the single most important source of legitimation in the modernization of the Middle East. Through detailed analysis of both official documents and the writings of the intellectuals who contributed to reforms in the Empire, the author first examines the general secularization process in the Ottoman Empire from the late 18th century up to the end of the 1920s. He then presents an in-depth analysis of a crucial case of secularization: the demise of Islamic Caliphate. Drawing upon a wide range of secondary and primary sources on the Caliphate and the wider process of political modernization, he employs discourse analysis and comparative-historical methods to examine how the Caliphate was first transformed into a "spiritual" institution and then abolished in 1924 by Turkish secularists. Ardç also demonstrates how the book’s argument is applicable to wider secularization and modernization processes in the Middle East. Deriving insights from history, anthropology, Islamic law and political science, the book will engage a critical mass of scholars interested in Middle Eastern studies, political Islam, secularization and the near-global revival of religion as well as the historians of Islam and late-Ottoman Empire, and those working in the field of historical sociology and the sociology of religion as a case study.

Politics and Gender Identity in Turkey

Author: Umut Korkut
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315405369
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The creation of Turkish nationhood, citizenship, economic transformation, the forceful removal of minorities and national homogenisation, gender rights, the position of armed forces in politics, and the political and economic integration of Kurdish minority in Turkish polity have all received major interest in academic and policy debates. The relationship between politics and religion in Turkey, originating from the early years of the Republicanism, has been central to many – if not all – of these issues. This book looks at how centralized religion has turned into a means of controlling and organizing the Turkish polity under the AKP (Justice and Development Party) governments by presenting the results from a study on Turkish hutbes (mosque sermons), analysing how their content relates to gender roles and identities. The book argues that the political domination of a secular state as an agency over religion has not suppressed, but transformed, religion into a political tool for the same agency to organise the polity and the society along its own ideological tenets. It looks at how this domination organises gender roles and identities to engender human capital to serve for a neoliberal economic developmentalism. The book then discusses the limits of this domination, reflecting on how its subjects position themselves between the politico-religious authority and their secular lives. Written in an accessible format, this book provides a fresh perspective on the relationship between religion and politics in the Middle East. More broadly, it also sheds light on global moral politics and illiberalism and why it relates to gender, religion and economics.

Politics and Religion

Author: Steve Bruce
Publisher: Polity
ISBN: 9780745628202
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Islamic fundamentalists wreck the financial heart of New York; Hindus destroy a mosque at Ayodhya; Orthodox Jews battle Palestinians for possession of holy sites; in Egypt, Israel and India political leaders are murdered by religious zealots. In many parts of the world, religion combines with ethnic and national conflict to stimulate political militancy. The collapse of Communism and the failure of Western secular models of development have stimulated the revival of religiously inspired nationalisms. Even in stable affluent democracies, religion is a powerful influence on political preferences. It affects lifestyle concerns such as abortion, gender roles and gay rights. It influences economic attitudes. It shapes the alignments of political parties. Believers try to influence governments and, although most governments in principle tolerate religious diversity, many still attempt to regulate religious behaviour, particularly that of new religious movements. Steve Bruce draws on material from all over the world and from all religious traditions to explore the complex links between religion and politics. He shows that, while social, economic and political circumstances shape the political choices and actions of believers, religion still matters. Although the major world faiths have at times been associated with every conceivable political agenda, there remain important differences between Catholic, Protestant, Hindu, Jewish, Buddhist, Confucian, Shinto and Muslim politics.

Between Islam and the State

Author: Berna Turam
Publisher: Stanford University Press
ISBN: 9780804755016
Format: PDF, Docs
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Examines how shifting power dynamics between the state and Islamic forces during the 1990s have transformed both Islam and the Turkish state.

Islam and Secularism in Post Colonial Thought

Author: Hadi Enayat
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319526111
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is a theoretically and historically informed exploration of 'secularism' in Muslim contexts. It does this through a critical assessment of an influential tradition of thinking about Islam and secularism, derived from the work of anthropologist Talal Asad and his followers. The study employs the tools of comparative historical sociology and sociology of knowledge to engage with the assumptions of Asadian theory. Ultimately, Enayat argues against nativist assertions drawn from the experience of Western modernity and provides a qualified defense of secularism.

The Politics of Islam in the Sahel

Author: Rahmane Idrissa
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1351981978
Format: PDF, Mobi
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‘Ideologies need enemies to thrive, religion does not’. Using the Sahel as a source of five comparative case studies, this volume aims to engage in the painstaking task of disentangling Islam from the political ideologies that have issued from its theologies to fight for governmental power and the transformation of society. While these ideologies tap into sources of religious legitimacy, the author shows that they are fundamentally secular or temporal enterprises, defined by confrontation with other political ideologies–both progressive and liberal–within the arena of nation states. Their objectives are the same as these other ideologies, i.e., to harness political power for changing national societies, and they resort to various methods of persuasion, until they break down into violence. The two driving questions of the book are, whence come these ideologies, and why do they–sometimes–result in violence? Ideologies of Salafi radicalism are at work in the five countries of the Sahel region, Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, (Northern) Nigeria and Senegal, but violence has broken out only in Mali and Northern Nigeria. Using a theoretical framework of ideological development and methods of historical analysis, Idrissa traces the emergence of Salafi radicalism in each of these countries as a spark ignited by the shock between concurrent processes of Islamization and colonization in the 1940s. However, while the spark eventually ignited a blaze in Mali and Nigeria, it has only led to milder political heat in Niger and Senegal and has had no burning effect at all in Burkina Faso. By meticulously examining the development of Salafi radicalism ideologies over time in connection with developments in national politics in each of the countries, Idrissa arrives at compelling conclusions about these divergent outcomes. Given the many similarities between the countries studied, these divergences show, in particular, that history, the behaviour of state leaders and national sociologies matter–against assumptions of ‘natural’ contradictions between religion (Islam) and secularism or democracy. This volume offers a new perspective in discussions on ideology, which remains–as is shown here–the independent variable of many key contemporary political processes, either hidden in plain sight or disguised in a religious garb.

G len

Author: Joshua D. Hendrick
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814770800
Format: PDF, ePub
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The "Hizmet" ("Service") Movement of Fethullah Gülen is Turkey’s most influential Islamic identity community. Widely praised throughout the early 2000s as a mild and moderate variation on Islamic political identity, the Gülen Movement has long been a topic of both adulation and conspiracy in Turkey. In Gülen, Joshua D. Hendrick suggests that the Gülen Movement should be given credit for playing a significant role in Turkey's rise to global prominence. Hendrick draws on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork in Turkey and the U.S. for his study. He argues that the movement’s growth and impact both inside and outside Turkey position both its leader and its followers as indicative of a "post political" turn in twenty-first century Islamic political identity in general, and as illustrative of Turkey’s political, economic, and cultural transformation in particular.

Islam

Author: Mohammed Arkoun
Publisher: Saqi
ISBN: 0863567908
Format: PDF
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At a time when Islam is the focus of attention, vilified by some and a source of inspiration for others, Arkoun's is one of few voices that seek to go against the stream. His radical review of mainstream historiography of Islam draws on interdisciplinary analysis - historical, social, psychological and anthropological. As one of the foremost thinkers of the Muslim world, Arkoun is in a position to question dogmatic constructs from within, with respect and critical acumen. An understanding of this approach will lead to an emancipatory turn in the intellectual and political spheres of Muslim societies. 'Mohammed Arkoun is an independent philosopher who has rendered outstanding services to societies in the Arab world by seeking a genuinely Arab approach to reason and enlightenment.' -- Ibn Rushd, Fund for Freedom of Thought 'No ordinary review could do justice to this extraordinary book.' -- Mahmoud Ibrahim, California State Polytechnic University

Political Islam in Tunisia

Author: Anne Wolf
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0190670754
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Political Islam in Tunisia uncovers the secret history of Tunisia's main Islamist movement, al-Nahda, from its origins as a sociocultural movement in the 1960s to the present. Banned until the popular uprisings of 2010- 11 and the overthrow of Ben Ali's dictatorship, al-Nahda has until nowbeen impossible to investigate. This is the first in-depth account of the movement, one of Tunisia's most influential political actors and an important source of regional leadership. Based on more than four years of field research, over 400 interviews, and access to private archives, Anne Wolf masterfully unveils the evolution of al-Nahda's ideological and strategic orientations within changing political contexts and, at times, conflicting ambitions amongst its leading cadres.She also explores the challenges to al-Nahda's quest for power from both secularists and Salafis. As the first full history of al- Nahda, this book is a major contribution to the literature on Tunisia, Islamist movements, and political Islam in the Arab world. It will be indispensable reading foranyone seeking to understand the forces driving a key player in the country most hopeful of pursuing a democratic trajectory in the wake of the Arab Spring.