The Tripolye Culture Giant settlements in Ukraine

Author: Francesco Menotti
Publisher: Oxbow Books Limited
ISBN: 9781842174838
Format: PDF, ePub
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The crucial role that the Ukrainian 'branch' of the Tripolye culture played in shaping the historical formation of the Ukraine, and indeed that of Europe, is still not fully understood or appreciated. Although we are mostly aware of its finely-crafted and decorated pottery, along with the highly-discussed house architecture and huge settlements (known as 'giant-settlements'), we often fail to connect the various dots in order to understand the different aspects of its development, from the very first eastward migrations, to the scission into two separate local groups (eastern and western Tripolye culture), the formation of the so-called giant-settlements, and finally to its inexorable decline after more than 2000 years of prosperous existence. This book attempts to bring together in English a variety of research traditions of Eastern and Western Europe, traditionally published in various languages and not readily accessible to all scholars, in the examination of the Ukrainian archaeological record. The volume has been organised so as to give the reader a clear image of the Tripolye culture in the Ukraine, with a special emphasis placed upon the development of the so-called 'giant-settlements'. Chapters discuss the geographical and chronological context, highlighting the different facets of the culture that resulted in the formation of the giant-settlements; relative and absolute chronology of the many sub-groups identified; migration; aspects of material culture (pottery and clay figurines, flint artefacts); architecture (settlement layout, house typology and standardised internal structures); experimental work on the construction and destruction of houses and controversial use of fire; and the ultimate disappearance of this accomplished and very long-lived cultural group.

Trypillia Mega Sites and European Prehistory

Author: Johannes Müller
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317247922
Format: PDF, Docs
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In European prehistory population agglomerations of more than 10,000 inhabitants per site are a seldom phenomenon. A big surprise to the archaeological community was the discovery of Trypillia mega-sites of more than 250 hectares and with remains of more than 2000 houses by a multidisciplinary approach of Soviet and Ukrainian archaeology, including aerial photography, geophysical prospection and excavations nearly 50 years ago. The extraordinary development took place at the border of the North Pontic Forest Steppe and Steppe zone ca. 4100–3400 BCE. Since then many questions arose which are of main relevance: Why, how and under which environmental conditions did Trypillia mega-sites develop? How long did they last? Were social and/or ecological reasons responsible for this social experiment? Are Trypillia and the similar sized settlement of Uruk two different concepts of social behaviour? Paradigm change in fieldwork and excavation strategies enabled research teams during the last decade to analyse the mega-sites in their spatial and social complexity. High precision geophysics, target excavations and a new design of systematic field strategies deliver empirical data representative for the large sites. Archaeological research contributed immensely to aspects of anthropogenic induced steppe development and subsistence concepts that did not reach the carrying capacities. Probabilistic models based on 14C-dates made the contemporaneity of the mega-site house structures most probable. In consequence, Trypillia mega-sites are an independent European phenomenon that contrasts both concepts of urbanism and social stratification that is seen with similar demographic figures in Mesopotamia. The new Trypillia research can be read as the methodological progress in European archaeology.

Communities in Transition

Author: Søren Dietz
ISBN: 178570723X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Communities in Transition brings together scholars from different countries and backgrounds united by a common interest in the transition between the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age in the lands around the Aegean. Neolithic community was transformed, in some places incrementally and in others rapidly, during the 5th and 4th millennia BC into one that we would commonly associate with the Bronze Age. Many different names have been assigned to this period: Final Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Eneolithic, Late Neolithic [I]-II, Copper Age which, to some extent, reflects the diversity of archaeological evidence from varied geographical regions. During this long heterogeneous period developments occurred that led to significant changes in material culture, the use of space, the adoption of metallurgical practices, establishment of far-reaching interaction and exchange networks, and increased social complexity. The 5th to 4th millennium BC transition is one of inclusions, entanglements, connectivity, and exchange of ideas, raw materials, finished products and, quite possibly, worldviews and belief systems. Most of the papers presented here are multifaceted and complex in that they do not deal with only one topic or narrowly focus on a single line of reasoning or dataset. Arranged geographically they explore a series of key themes: Chronology, cultural affinities, and synchronization in material culture; changing social structure and economy; inter- and intra-site space use and settlement patterns, caves and include both site reports and regional studies. This volume presents a tour de force examination of many multifaceted aspects of the social, cultural, technological, economic and ideological transformations that mark the transition from Neolithic to Early Bronze Age societies in the lands around the Aegean during the 5th and 4th millennium BC.

Eurasia at the Dawn of History

Author: Manuel Fernández-Götz
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107147409
Format: PDF
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This book is an interdisciplinary study of the development of the first cities and early state formations of ancient Eurasia.

Modelling Human Behaviour in Landscapes

Author: Oliver Nakoinz
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319295381
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This volume is designed as a 12-lecture textbook, which can serve as a course companion, self teaching guide and handbook for basic concepts. Each lecture comprises 20 pages, in which the methods are introduced, examples shown and the code is given. All examples are computed with open source software, mainly R, and with archaeological data available from the book's website. The book does not describe elaborated high-end models but rather very basic modelling concepts that serve as components in more complex models. The book enables the reader to construct such models by themselves and be sensitive for certain problems. In addition it gives hints for the interpretation of the results. Students are usually quick to apply fancy methods yet fail in the proper interpretation due to a lack of understanding of the underlying principles. This problem is addressed by the proposed book through three concepts: 1. Command line software forces the students to first learn some details before they are able to produce results on their own. 2. The book is focused on principles and methods. When the students understand a few basic principles, they have far better access to a wide range of related methods. 3. Examples of poor analysis highlight common pitfalls. The volume attempts to be an applied, minimalistic and efficient textbook and is based upon several successful courses.

The Lost World of Old Europe

Author: David W. Anthony
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 9780691143880
Format: PDF
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In the prehistoric Copper Age, long before cities, writing, or the invention of the wheel, Old Europe was among the most culturally rich regions in the world. Its inhabitants lived in prosperous agricultural towns. The ubiquitous goddess figurines found in their houses and shrines have triggered intense debates about women's roles. The Lost World of Old Europe is the accompanying catalog for an exhibition at New York University's Institute for the Study of the Ancient World. This superb volume features essays by leading archaeologists as well as breathtaking color photographs cataloguing the objects, some illustrated here for the first time. The heart of Old Europe was in the lower Danube valley, in contemporary Bulgaria and Romania. Old European coppersmiths were the most advanced metal artisans in the world. Their intense interest in acquiring copper, Aegean shells, and other rare valuables gave rise to far-reaching trading networks. In their graves, the bodies of Old European chieftains were adorned with pounds of gold and copper ornaments. Their funerals were without parallel in the Near East or Egypt. The exhibition represents the first time these rare objects have appeared in the United States. An unparalleled introduction to Old Europe's cultural, technological, and artistic legacy, The Lost World of Old Europe includes essays by Douglass Bailey, John Chapman, Cornelia-Magda Lazarovici, Ioan Opris and Catalin Bem, Ernst Pernicka, Dragomir Nicolae Popovici, Michel Séfériadès, and Vladimir Slavchev.

Ancient History of Aratta Ukraine 20 000 BCE 1 000 CE

Author: Yuri Shilov
ISBN: 9781503076020
Format: PDF, ePub
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COLOUR EDITION What was Aratta? Why is this most ancient civilisation important to us today? The Arattan civilisation has come to signify the creation of an assembly of tribes and nations which ultimately spread across the entire span of Eurasia. Aratta itself became an epithet for "abundance" and "glory". Aratta created script, texts, writing, laws and precepts, contracts, trade, judicial systems, agriculture, spirited arts & crafts - within a peaceful, matriarchal civilisation many millennia before the founding of Sumer around 3200 BCE which had itself sprung, seemingly 'ready-formed', into archaeological consciousness according to Sumerian scholars. So why are Western historians of ancient civilisations predominantly focused on studying Rome, Greece and Egypt, almost to the exclusion of fabulous Mesopotamian Sumer and its progenitor, this Aratta? Its rich petroglyphic archives deposited by Stone Age communities of mammoth-hunters in Ukraine can no longer be ignored, accordingly, this book sets out to trace the development of this civilisation from its origin on the territory of Ukraine, the northern Black Sea Land of Aratta. From 20,000 BCE, pre-state Aratta progressed from being a well-organised society to one whose subsequent wisdom-keepers would, by 12,000 BCE, have inscribed their chronicles in sanctuary grottoes at 'Kamyana Mohyla' (southern Ukraine). In this "Stone Library", which remains virtually unknown in the Western world, lies a written agreement from c. 6,200 BCE, an appeal for mutual aid between missionaries from Çatal Höyük (Anatolia) which singularly justifies recognition of Aratta as the world's first known state and founder of the "Indo-European" community of tribes and languages. In this image-rich book, Dr. Shilov critically examines the extent to which Aratta's tendrils advanced into Asia Minor, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt and indeed, across Europe covering the most extensive timescale imaginable. This is far more than 'mere history', it is an analysis of how the apotheosis of Aratta ("Trypillian archaeological culture") came to be eclipsed by the rise of its off-shoot, the slave-holding civilisation of Sumer. This progressive trend was paralleled by a movement away from the ancient intuitive perception of their world to one which was based upon logical analysis. The author stresses the importance of understanding the balance between the material form and field essence components of 'physical space' and their interpretation by the conscious and subconscious mind. It was this fundamental distinction which drew Aratta's Brahman priests to dissociate "life-and-death" from "existence and non-existence". Dr. Shilov's lifetime experience of excavating hundreds of burial kurhans and graves across the steppes of Ukraine made it possible to "decipher" the mythological rituals associated with those mounds which closely resemble those rituals in the Indo-Aryan Rigveda, yet arose long before they appeared in India, corroborating the linguistic conception that the Aryans and their beliefs originated in the lower Dnipro area of Ukraine. Drawing upon sources rarely encountered by Western researchers Dr. Shilov describes the migrations of ancient Eurasian tribes; the spread of Vedic philosophy into India; the origins of Pelasgian and Greek legends; the rise of Cimmerian, Scythian, Slavic and western European nations; the emergence of Kyivan Rus and through Cossack traditions, an appreciation of the sustained preservation of the core tenets of Arattan culture, still maintained in the very heart of modern Ukraine. At a time when modern civilisations often exhibit uncivilised behaviour, an understanding of Aratta's precepts of peaceful, harmonious society is surely worthy of our attention. "Ancient History of Aratta-Ukraine" is sincerely recommended.

The Living Goddesses

Author: Marija Gimbutas
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 9780520229150
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"The quintessence of decades of research. . . . It excellently illustrates the various manifestations of the Goddess in the Minoan world and in ancient Greece, among the Etruscans and the Basques, in Celtic, Germanic, and Baltic religion. . . . For sure, the ideas of Marija Gimbutas about the 'Old European' civilization are controversial, but they are built on strong arguments and valid bases, which make it indispensable for her dissident colleagues to take heed of her writings."--Edgar Polomé, Editor of the Journal of Indo-European Studies "The overall view of 'Old Europe' Marija Gimbutas presents is not only readable but spellbinding. . . . Archaeological findings, folklore, and historical texts, including images and texts from ancient Greece and the ancient Near East, are drawn on, and together they produce a coherent, seamless imagery."--Kees Bolle, University of California, Los Angeles

The Origin of the Indo Iranians

Author: Elena Efimovna Kuzʹmina
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 900416054X
Format: PDF, Docs
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Here then is the fruit of Elena Kuz'mina's life-long quest for the Indo-Iranians. Already its predecessor ("Otkuda prishli indoarii?," published in 1994) was considered the most comprehensive analysis of the origins of the Indo-Iranians ever published, but in this new, significantly expanded edition (edited by J.P. Mallory) we find an encyclopaedic account of the Andronovo culture of Eurasia. Taking its evidence from archaeology, linguistics, ethnology, mythology, and physical anthropology pertaining to Indo-Iranian origins and expansions, it comprehensively covers the relationships of this culture with neighboring areas and cultures, and its role in the foundation of the Indo-Iranian peoples.