The United States and Western Europe Since 1945

Author: Geir Lundestad
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780199283972
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Based on new and existing research by a world-class scholar, this is the first book in twenty years to examine the dynamics of the entire American-West European relationship since 1945.The relationship between the United States and Western Europe has always been crucial and recent events dictate that it is becoming ever more so. In this important new work, Geir Lundestad analyses the balance between the cooperation and conflict which has characterized this relationship in the post-war period. He examines talk of transatlantic drift, and the strain now apparent between the USA and the nation states of Western Europe. In the concluding section, Lundestad offers a topical viewof the future of transatlantic interaction.Throughout the work Lundestad's much cited 'empire by invitation' thesis is both put into practice and extended in time and scope. This book is essential reading for anyone interested in one of the most important and enduring international relationships of the last sixty years.

Allianzpolitik in der Suezkrise 1956

Author: Thomas Freiberger
Publisher: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht
ISBN: 3847000314
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Im Juli 1956 verstaatlichte der ägyptische Staatspräsident Nasser den Suezkanal und stürzte damit den Nahen Osten und auch die NATO in eine der schwersten Krisen der 1950er Jahre. Obwohl der Suezkanal außerhalb des eigentlichen NATO-Vertragsgebietes lag, war er zentral für die Ölversorgung Westeuropas. Die »großen Drei« der NATO, Großbritannien und Frankreich einerseits und die USA andererseits, waren fortan uneinig über die Frage von Krieg und Frieden im Nahen Osten. Im Zentrum dieser Untersuchung steht die umstrittene Frage, welche Auswirkungen die Suezkrise und der Suezkrieg auf den Zusammenhalt der NATO hatten. Welches Verständnis von Allianzen und Allianzpolitik besaßen die damaligen Entscheidungsträger? Wie funktioniert Bündniskonsultation im Frieden und im Krieg? Welche Spielräume besitzt die Führungsmacht eines Bündnisses, um kriegsbereite Bündnispartner zu mäßigen? Wie groß war die Atomkriegsgefahr auf dem Höhepunkt der Suezkrise? Antworten auf all diese Fragen gibt diese Studie.

Br ckenbauer

Author: Victor Mauer
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 311058705X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Die sowjetische Blockade Berlins gehört zu den großen Wendepunkten in der Geschichte des Kalten Krieges. Das Hauptaugenmerk der internationalen Forschung gilt dabei bis heute den beiden Supermächten. Großbritannien wird je nach Blickwinkel eine Rolle zwischen Defätismus und Komplizenschaft der westlichen Hegemonialmacht beigemessen. Auf einer breiten Quellengrundlage untersucht Victor Mauer erstmals systematisch die britische Krisenpolitik. Dabei fragt er nach den Akteuren, ihren Handlungsspielräumen und Handlungszwängen, beleuchtet widerstreitende Motive und Interessen, analysiert Verhandlungsstrategien und taktisches Kalkül, arbeitet institutionalisierte und informelle Entscheidungsprozesse heraus, widmet sich der Rolle von Öffentlichkeit und Medien, identifiziert wirkmächtige historische Narrative als Mobilisierungsressource, die dem öffentlichen Bedürfnis nach Komplexitätsreduktion in Krisenzeiten entsprach, und betont die Gleichzeitigkeit der Gegensätze. Die Studie revidiert nicht nur unser Bild von der britischen und damit zugleich von der westlichen Politik während der Blockade Berlins. Sie führt auch zu einer Neubewertung der britischen Deutschlandpolitik, ohne die die Krisenpolitik nicht zu verstehen ist.

Transatlantic Relations in the 21st Century

Author: Erwan Lagadec
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113630195X
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book offers an overview of the interface between European integration, transatlantic relations, and the 'rise of the rest' in the early 21st century. The collapse of the Soviet bloc opened up an era in which the drivers and perceived benefits of the US alliance among European countries have become more variegated and shifting. The proposition that the US remains at once an 'indispensable' and 'intolerable' nation in Europe is a key concept in the alliance, as the US remains inextricably tied to the continent through economic, military and cultural links. This work examines this complex subject area from many angles, including an analysis of the historical and cultural contexts of America’s relations with Europe, as well as a discussion of the politics of transatlantic affairs which utilises evidence gleaned from a series of case-studies. In the concluding chapters, the author assesses the likelihood that the West can entrench its global dominance in the realms of "soft" and "hard" power, and by effecting a "controlled reform" that will see multilateral structures open up to emerging powers. This book will be of great interest to students of European Politics, EU integration, transatlantic relations, US foreign policy/diplomacy, International Security and IR in general.

Confronting America

Author: Alessandro Brogi
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 0807877743
Format: PDF, Docs
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Throughout the Cold War, the United States encountered unexpected challenges from Italy and France, two countries with the strongest, and determinedly most anti-American, Communist Parties in Western Europe. Based primarily on new evidence from communist archives in France and Italy, as well as research archives in the United States, Alessandro Brogi's original study reveals how the United States was forced by political opposition within these two core Western countries to reassess its own anticommunist strategies, its image, and the general meaning of American liberal capitalist culture and ideology. Brogi shows that the resistance to Americanization was a critical test for the French and Italian communists' own legitimacy and existence. Their anti-Americanism was mostly dogmatic and driven by the Soviet Union, but it was also, at crucial times, subtle and ambivalent, nurturing fascination with the American culture of dissent. The staunchly anticommunist United States, Brogi argues, found a successful balance to fighting the communist threat in France and Italy by employing diplomacy and fostering instances of mild dissent in both countries. Ultimately, both the French and Italian communists failed to adapt to the forces of modernization that stemmed both from indigenous factors and from American influence. Confronting America illuminates the political, diplomatic, economic, and cultural conflicts behind the U.S.-communist confrontation.

Irresistible Empire

Author: Victoria De Grazia
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674031180
Format: PDF, ePub
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The most significant conquest of the twentieth century may well have been the triumph of American consumer society over Europe's bourgeois civilization. It is this little-understood but world-shaking campaign that unfolds in de Grazia's account of how the American standard of living defeated the European way of life and achieved the global cultural hegemony that is both its great strength and its key weakness today. Tracing the peculiar alliance that arrayed New World salesmanship, statecraft, and standardized goods against the Old World's values of status, craft, and good taste, de Grazia describes how all alternative strategies fell before America's consumer-oriented capitalism--first the bourgeois lifestyle, then the Third Reich's command consumption, and finally the grand experiment of Soviet-style socialist planning.--From publisher description.

Security Strategy and Transatlantic Relations

Author: Roland Dannreuther
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134143605
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In this much-needed study of current strategic thinking on both sides of the Atlantic, a diverse collection of leading European and American analysts are assembled to tackle key questions that remain unanswered in the existing literature: how much do new security strategies signal convergence or divergence in US and EU foreign and security policy doctrine? what tangible political and policy impacts can be attributed to new security strategies? what are the implications for US and EU policies towards specific regions? what are the prospects for collective transatlantic action? The legacy of 9/11 is scrutinized against the backdrop of the strategic thinking that preceded it. In the 1990s, the US struggled to develop a new doctrine for American foreign policy, seeking at various times to promote a ‘New World Order’ or ‘democratic enlargement’. For its part, the EU had tried to underpin its new Common Foreign and Security Policy with a coherent set of ‘European values’ – multilateralism, human rights, environmental protection, and poverty reduction – that were best defended via collective European action. Key continuities and changes in these transatlantic efforts since 9/11 are clearly identified and closely examined.

Nato Geheimarmeen in Europa

Author: Daniele Ganser
Publisher: Orell Füssli Verlag
ISBN: 328003860X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Dieses Buch zeichnet ein erschreckendes Bild: Ein durch die NATO und die militärischen Geheimdienste koordiniertes Netzwerk von Geheimarmeen war bis zum Auseinanderfall der Sowjetunion in mehreren westeuropäischen Ländern in schwere Verbrechen verwickelt, darunter Mord, Folter, Staatsstreich und Terror. Daniele Ganser ist in seiner mehrjährigen Forschungsarbeit auf brisante Dokumente gestoßen: Sie belegen, dass die von den USA angeführte Militärallianz nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg in allen Ländern Westeuropas geheime Armeen aufgebaut hat, welche von den Geheimdiensten CIA und MI6 trainiert wurden. Ihr Ziel: im Falle einer sowjetischen Invasion als Guerilla zu kämpfen, um die besetzten Länder wieder zu befreien. Doch dabei ist es nicht geblieben. Gezielt wurden Attentate gegen die eigene Bevölkerung ausgeführt, um Unsicherheit zu erzeugen und den Ruf nach einem starken Staat zu unterstützen. Sowohl die ursprüngliche Planung als auch die antikommunistisch motivierten Verbrechen sind heute der Öffentlichkeit noch weitgehend unbekannt.

From Civil to Human Rights

Author: Helle Porsdam
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1849802300
Format: PDF
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Helle Porsdam s new book is a readable and perceptive analysis of European and American perceptions of essential human rights and their roots in national and regional cultures. Professor Porsdam traces the notions of civil, political, social and economic interests as rights protected and implemented by law on both sides of the Atlantic. From Civil to Human Rights is a must read for Europeans, Americans, and everyone else who wants to learn more about the institutions, values, hopes and dreams that bring us together and hold us apart at the beginning of the 21st century. Peter L. Murray, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, US Is there a special human rights narrative emerging from the chastened soul of post-war Europe? What lies ahead for that great but shattered community? Helle Porsdam, a leader in the related fields of human rights and humane letters, bids fair to answer these and other pressing questions. Along the way her highly nuanced intellect addresses the frustrating differences among those contentious first cousins, Europe and the United States. The result is a wide-ranging, richly informed inquiry about Europe s rise from the ashes and the choices it must make to inspire rather than repulse the world around it. Richard Weisberg, Cardozo Law School, New York, US Europeans have attempted for some time to develop a human rights talk and now European intellectuals are talking about the need to construct European narratives . This book illustrates that these narratives will emphasize a political and cultural vision for a multi-ethnic and more cosmopolitan Europe. The narratives evolve around human rights, partly in the hope that they might function as a cultural glue in an increasingly multi-ethnic Europe, and partly because they are intimately connected with that part of enlightenment thinking that sought to promote democracy and the rule of law. Helle Porsdam discusses the development of human rights as a discourse of atonement for Europeans a discourse which has the potential to become a shared, transatlantic discourse. Using an interdisciplinary approach, this book will be an invaluable research tool for postgraduate students and scholars within the fields of law, history, political science and international relations.