The Vacuum Interrupter

Author: Paul G. Slade
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420008593
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Drawn from the author's more than four decades of practical experience in the industry, The Vacuum Interrupter: Theory, Design, and Application first discusses the design and manufacture of the vacuum interrupter before delving into its general application. The book begins with a review of the vacuum breakdown process and what to consider when developing a design for a high-voltage application. It then discusses the vacuum arc and how its appearance changes as a function of current. This section concludes with an overview of existing contact materials, a summary of their advantages and disadvantages, an analysis of vacuum interrupter contact design, and considerations for the manufacture of vacuum interrupters. The next section on application describes the interruption process for low- and high-current vacuum arcs, examines the voltage escalation event that occurs if the contact gap is very small at the ac current zero, and explores the phenomenon of contact welding. It also studies the application of vacuum interrupters to switch load currents, circuit breakers, and reclosers. Owing to the increasing need for environmentally friendly interrupting systems, the development of vacuum interrupters will only intensify over time. With extensive references in each chapter for further exploration, this comprehensive guide provides essential, up-to-date knowledge to fully understand this vital technology.

Electrical Contacts

Author: Paul G. Slade
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439881316
Format: PDF
Download Now
Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switching devices, including the interruption of AC and DC circuits with currents in the range 10mA to 100kA and circuits up to 1000V, and describes arc formation between open contacts and between opening contacts. Arcing effects on contacts such as erosion, welding, and contamination are also addressed. Containing nearly 3,000 references, tables, equations, figures, drawings, and photographs, the book provides practical examples encompassing everything from electronic circuits to high power circuits, or microamperes to mega amperes. The new edition: Reflects the latest advances in electrical contact science and technology Examines current research on contact corrosion, materials, and switching Includes updates and revisions in each chapter, as well as up-to-date references and new figures and examples throughout Delivers three new chapters on the effects of dust contamination, electronic sensing for switching systems, and contact phenomena for micro-electronic systems (MEMS) applications With contributions from recognized experts in the field, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition assists practicing scientists and engineers in the prevention of costly system failures, as well as offers a comprehensive introduction to the subject for technology graduate students, by expanding their knowledge of electrical contact phenomena.

Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems

Author: René Smeets
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118381351
Format: PDF, ePub
Download Now
Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems presents the issues and technological solutions associated with switching in power systems, from medium to ultra-high voltage. The book systematically discusses the electrical aspects of switching, details the way load and fault currents are interrupted, the impact of fault currents, and compares switching equipment in particular circuit-breakers. The authors also explain all examples of practical switching phenomena by examining real measurements from switching tests. Other highlights include: up to date commentary on new developments in transmission and distribution technology such as ultra-high voltage systems, vacuum switchgear for high-voltage, generator circuit-breakers, distributed generation, DC-interruption, aspects of cable systems, disconnector switching, very fast transients, and circuit-breaker reliability studies. Key features: Summarises the issues and technological solutions associated with the switching of currents in transmission and distribution systems. Introduces and explains recent developments such as vacuum switchgear for transmission systems, SF6 environmental consequences and alternatives, and circuit-breaker testing. Provides practical guidance on how to deal with unacceptable switching transients. Details the worldwide IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) standards on switching equipment, illustrating current circuit-breaker applications. Features many figures and tables originating from full-power tests and established training courses, or from measurements in real networks. Focuses on practical and application issues relevant to practicing engineers. Essential reading for electrical engineers, utility engineers, power system application engineers, consultants and power systems asset managers, postgraduates and final year power system undergraduates.

Power System Transients

Author: Juan A. Martinez-Velasco
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781420065305
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Despite the powerful numerical techniques and graphical user interfaces available in present software tools for power system transients, a lack of reliable tests and conversion procedures generally makes determination of parameters the most challenging part of creating a model. Illustrates Parameter Determination for Real-World Applications Geared toward both students and professionals with at least some basic knowledge of electromagnetic transient analysis, Power System Transients: Parameter Determination summarizes current procedures and techniques for the determination of transient parameters for six basic power components: overhead line, insulated cable, transformer, synchronous machine, surge arrester, and circuit breaker. An expansion on papers published in the IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, this text helps those using transient simulation tools (e.g., EMTP-like tools) to select the optimal determination method for their particular model, and it addresses commonly encountered problems, including: Lack of information Testing setups and measurements that are not recognized in international standards Insufficient studies to validate models, mainly those used in high-frequency transients Current built-in models that do not cover all requirements Illustrated with case studies, this book provides modeling guidelines for the selection of adequate representations for main components. It discusses how to collect the information needed to obtain model parameters and also reviews procedures for deriving them. Appendices summarize updated techniques for identifying linear systems from frequency responses and review capabilities and limitations of simulation tools. Emphasizing standards, this book is a clear and concise presentation of key aspects in creating an adequate and reliable transient model.

Vacuum Switchgear

Author: Allan Greenwood
Publisher: IET
ISBN: 9780852968550
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
Vacuum switches now dominate the medium-voltage sector (below 30 kV) for all power switching functions. Allan Greenwood is a world authority in this field; in this book he shows how vacuum arcs and current interruption in vacuum are different from gaseous arcs and interruption in gas circuit breakers, and leads the reader to understand these differences - thereby enabling successful design, construction and use of vacuum switchgear. This comprehensive treatment (including an introductory historical perspective) makes the book useful for users and manufacturers as well as designers.

Vacuum

Author: Pramod K. Naik
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0429995423
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Vacuum plays an important role in science and technology. The study of interaction of charged particles, neutrals and radiation with each other and with solid surfaces requires a vacuum environment for reliable investigations. Vacuum has contributed immensely to advancements made in nuclear science, space, metallurgy, electrical/electronic technology, chemical engineering, transportation, robotics and many other fields. This book is intended to assist students, scientists, technicians and engineers to understand the basics of vacuum science and technology for application in their projects. The fundamental theories, concepts, devices, applications, and key inventions are discussed.

Power Circuit Breaker Theory and Design

Author: Charles H. Flurscheim
Publisher: IET
ISBN: 9780906048702
Format: PDF
Download Now
The book has 13 chapters and the following topics are dealt with: development of circuit breakers; physics of circuit breaker arcs; network switching conditions; oil circuit breakers; air break circuit breakers; air blast circuit breakers; SF6 circuit breakers; vacuum circuit breakers; special switching systems; circuit breaker specification and testing; design criteria for reliability, maintenance & safety; insulation applied to circuit breakers; cost effective design; and visual current chopping.

Handbook of Vacuum Arc Science Technology

Author: Raymond L. Boxman
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0815517793
Format: PDF
Download Now
This is a comprehensive text describing the basic physics and technological applications of vacuum arcs. Part I describes basic physics of the vacuum arc, beginning with a brief tutorial review of plasma and electrical discharge physics, then describes the arc ignition process, cathode and anode spots which serve as the locus for plasma generation, and resultant interelectrode plasma. Part II describes the applications of the vacuum arc for depositing thin films and coatings, refining metals, switching high power, and as sources of intense electron, ion, plasma, and x-ray beams.

Power Switching Components

Author: Kaveh Niayesh
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319514601
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
This book focuses on the theory and application of power switching components in power networks. More specifically, it discusses current interruption theory, applied stresses to switching components in power networks and appropriate methods to test their different functionalities. It reviews the basic working principles of current technologies and summarizes the upcoming technological advances within the field of power switching devices. Taking an educational approach to the subject, this book is useful for graduate courses on high voltage equipment and power device technology within the electric power engineering discipline. Furthermore, inclusion of numerous worked examples, exercises and easily digestible descriptions of complex physical phenomena in switching devices make this an invaluable self-learning resource for engineers.

High Voltage Circuit Breakers

Author: Ruben D. Garzon
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824744276
Format: PDF, Docs
Download Now
This newly revised and updated reference presents sensible approaches to the design, selection, and usage of high-voltage circuit breakers-highlighting compliance issues concerning new and aging equipment to the evolving standards set forth by the American National Standards Institute and the International Electrotechnical Commission. This edition features the latest advances in mechanical and dielectric design and application from a simplified qualitative perspective. High Voltage Circuit Breakers: Design and Applications features new material on contact resistance, insulating film coatings, and fretting; temperature at the point of contact; short-time heating of copper; erosion and electromagnetic forces on contacts; closing speed and circuit breaker requirements; "weld" break and contact bounce; factors influencing dielectric strength; air, SF6, vacuum, and solid insulation; and dielectric loss and partial discharges, and includes updated chapters on capacitance switching; switching series and shunt reactors; temporary overvoltages; and the benefits of condition monitoring.