The World of Plants in Renaissance Tuscany

Author: Cristina Bellorini
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131701149X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In the sixteenth century medicinal plants, which until then had been the monopoly of apothecaries, became a major topic of investigation in the medical faculties of Italian universities, where they were observed, transplanted, and grown by learned physicians both in the wild and in the newly founded botanical gardens. Tuscany was one of the main European centres in this new field of inquiry, thanks largely to the Medici Grand Dukes, who patronised and sustained research and teaching, whilst also taking a significant personal interest in plants and medicine. This is the first major reconstruction of this new world of plants in sixteenth-century Tuscany. Focusing primarily on the medical use of plants, this book also shows how plants, while maintaining their importance in therapy, began to be considered and studied for themselves, and how this new understanding prepared the groundwork for the science of botany. More broadly this study explores how the New World's flora impacted on existing botanical knowledge and how this led to the first attempts at taxonomy.

Health and Welfare in St Petersburg 1900 1941

Author: Christopher Williams
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429016611
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In the first book to chart late Imperial and Soviet health policy and its impact on the health of the collective in Russia’s former capital and second "regime" city, Christopher Williams argues that in pre-revolutionary St. Petersburg radical sections of the medical profession and the Bolsheviks highlighted the local and Tsarist government’s failure to protect the health of poor peasants and the working class due to conflicts over the priority and direction of health policy, budget constraints and political division amongst doctors. They sought to forge alliances to change the law on social insurance and to prioritise the health of the collective. Situating pre- and post-revolutionary health policies in the context of revolutions, civil war, market transition and Stalin’s rise to power, Williams shows how attempts were made to protect the Body Russian/Soviet and to create a healthier lifestyle and environment for key members of the new Soviet state. This failed due to shortages of money, ideology and Soviet medical and cultural norms. It resulted in ad hoc interventions into people’s lives and the promotion of medical professionalization, and then the imposition of restrictions resulting from changes in the Party line. Williams shows that when the health of the collective was threatened and created medical disorder, it led to state coercion.

From Clinic to Concentration Camp

Author: Paul Weindling
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317132408
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Representing a new wave of research and analysis on Nazi human experiments and coerced research, the chapters in this volume deliberately break from a top-down history limited to concentration camp experiments under the control of Himmler and the SS. Instead the collection positions extreme experiments (where research subjects were taken to the point of death) within a far wider spectrum of abusive coerced research. The book considers the experiments not in isolation but as integrated within wider aspects of medical provision as it became caught up in the Nazi war economy, revealing that researchers were opportunistic and retained considerable autonomy. The sacrifice of so many prisoners, patients and otherwise healthy people rounded up as detainees raises important issues about the identities of the research subjects: who were they, how did they feel, how many research subjects were there and how many survived? This underworld of the victims of the elite science of German medical institutes and clinics has until now remained a marginal historical concern. Jews were a target group, but so were gypsies/Sinti and Roma, the mentally ill, prisoners of war and partisans. By exploring when and in what numbers scientists selected one group rather than another, the book provides an important record of the research subjects having agency, reconstructing responses and experiential narratives, and recording how these experiments – iconic of extreme racial torture – represent one of the worst excesses of Nazism.

The World of Plants in Renaissance Tuscany

Author: Cristina Bellorini
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN: 9781472466228
Format: PDF
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In the sixteenth century medicinal plants, which until then had been the monopoly of apothecaries, became a major topic of investigation in the medical faculties of Italian universities, where they were observed, transplanted, and grown by learned physicians both in the wild and in the newly founded botanical gardens. Tuscany was one of the main European centres in this new field of inquiry, thanks largely to the Medici Grand Dukes, who patronised and sustained research and teaching, whilst also taking a significant personal interest in plants and medicine. This is the first major reconstruction of this new world of plants in sixteenth-century Tuscany. Focusing primarily on the medical use of plants, this book also shows how plants, while maintaining their importance in therapy, began to be considered and studied for themselves, and how this new understanding prepared the groundwork for the science of botany. More broadly this study explores how the New World's flora impacted on existing botanical knowledge and how this led to the first attempts at taxonomy.

It All Depends on the Dose

Author: Ole Peter Grell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315521075
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This is the first volume to take a broad historical sweep of the close relation between medicines and poisons in the Western tradition, and their interconnectedness. They are like two ends of a spectrum, for the same natural material can be medicine or poison, depending on the dose, and poisons can be transformed into medicines, while medicines can turn out to be poisons. The book looks at important moments in the history of the relationship between poisons and medicines in European history, from Roman times, with the Greek physician Galen, through the Renaissance and the maverick physician Paracelsus, to the present, when poisons are actively being turned into beneficial medicines.

Pathology in Practice

Author: Silvia De Renzi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317083318
Format: PDF
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Post-mortems may have become a staple of our TV viewing, but the long history of this practice is still little known. This book provides a fresh account of the dissections that took place across early modern Europe on those who had died of a disease or in unclear circumstances. Drawing on different approaches and on sources as varied as notes taken at the dissection table, legal records and learned publications, the chapters explore how autopsies informed the understanding of pathology of all those involved. With a broad geography, including Rome, Amsterdam and Geneva, the book recaptures the lost worlds of physicians, surgeons, patients, families and civic authorities as they used corpses to understand diseases and make sense of suffering. The evidence from post-mortems was not straightforward, but between 1500 and 1750 medical practitioners rose to the challenge, proposing various solutions to the difficulties they encountered and creating a remarkable body of knowledge. The book shows the scope and diversity of this tradition and how laypeople contributed their knowledge and expectations to the wide-ranging exchanges stimulated by the opening of bodies.

A Companion to the History of Science

Author: Bernard Lightman
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118620755
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The Wiley Blackwell Companion to the History of Science is a single volume companion that discusses the history of science as it is done today, providing a survey of the debates and issues that dominate current scholarly discussion, with contributions from leading international scholars. Provides a single-volume overview of current scholarship in the history of science edited by one of the leading figures in the field Features forty essays by leading international scholars providing an overview of the key debates and developments in the history of science Reflects the shift towards deeper historical contextualization within the field Helps communicate and integrate perspectives from the history of science with other areas of historical inquiry Includes discussion of non-Western themes which are integrated throughout the chapters Divided into four sections based on key analytic categories that reflect new approaches in the field

The Cultural History of Plants

Author: Sir Ghillean Prance
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135958106
Format: PDF, Docs
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This valuable reference will be useful for both scholars and general readers. It is both botanical and cultural, describing the role of plant in social life, regional customs, the arts, natural and covers all aspects of plant cultivation and migration and covers all aspects of plant cultivation and migration. The text includes an explanation of plant names and a list of general references on the history of useful plants.

The Flowering of Florence

Author: Lucia Tongiorgi Tomasi
Publisher: Lund Humphries Publishers
ISBN: 9780853318576
Format: PDF, ePub
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"Living immersed in landscapes of great natural beauty, Tuscans have always harboured a deep love of flowers and gardens. During the Renaissance, in intellectual circles, this propensity developed naturally into an interest in horticulture and the botanical sciences, subjects that would coexist in perfect harmony with the Medici family's love of the arts." "The Flowering of Florence is published in association with the National Gallery of Art, Washington, to coincide with an exhibition of about sixty-five works of art primarily from Florentine collections. This handsome volume explores the close ties between art and natural sciences in Tuscany as seen in the botanical renderings created in Florence for the Medici grand dukes from the late 1500s through the early 1700s."--BOOK JACKET.Title Summary field provided by Blackwell North America, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Economic Development in the Middle East

Author: Rodney Wilson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415491266
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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By examining economic development in the Middle East in the aftermath of the Arab Spring, this textbook introduces undergraduate and postgraduate students to the most pressing and topical economic issues in the contemporary Middle East. With comprehensive coverage of the entire region, the author examines the economic prospects for the Gulf and charts the growth of economic power in the region. Organised thematically, a full range of topics are discussed, including: The role of banks and capital markets in the region's development; The impact of demographic changes, such as the dramatic decline in birth rates and the implications for future employment; The development of economic advances in oil and gas production; The effects of the region's economic development on international and inter-regional trade. Through discussing the region's problems of the past as well as the present and future challenges, this book provides students with a compact and manageable review of the state of economic development in the Middle East.