The World of Plants in Renaissance Tuscany

Author: Cristina Bellorini
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131701149X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In the sixteenth century medicinal plants, which until then had been the monopoly of apothecaries, became a major topic of investigation in the medical faculties of Italian universities, where they were observed, transplanted, and grown by learned physicians both in the wild and in the newly founded botanical gardens. Tuscany was one of the main European centres in this new field of inquiry, thanks largely to the Medici Grand Dukes, who patronised and sustained research and teaching, whilst also taking a significant personal interest in plants and medicine. This is the first major reconstruction of this new world of plants in sixteenth-century Tuscany. Focusing primarily on the medical use of plants, this book also shows how plants, while maintaining their importance in therapy, began to be considered and studied for themselves, and how this new understanding prepared the groundwork for the science of botany. More broadly this study explores how the New World's flora impacted on existing botanical knowledge and how this led to the first attempts at taxonomy.

Health and Welfare in St Petersburg 1900 1941

Author: Christopher Williams
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0429016611
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In the first book to chart late Imperial and Soviet health policy and its impact on the health of the collective in Russia’s former capital and second "regime" city, Christopher Williams argues that in pre-revolutionary St. Petersburg radical sections of the medical profession and the Bolsheviks highlighted the local and Tsarist government’s failure to protect the health of poor peasants and the working class due to conflicts over the priority and direction of health policy, budget constraints and political division amongst doctors. They sought to forge alliances to change the law on social insurance and to prioritise the health of the collective. Situating pre- and post-revolutionary health policies in the context of revolutions, civil war, market transition and Stalin’s rise to power, Williams shows how attempts were made to protect the Body Russian/Soviet and to create a healthier lifestyle and environment for key members of the new Soviet state. This failed due to shortages of money, ideology and Soviet medical and cultural norms. It resulted in ad hoc interventions into people’s lives and the promotion of medical professionalization, and then the imposition of restrictions resulting from changes in the Party line. Williams shows that when the health of the collective was threatened and created medical disorder, it led to state coercion.

From Clinic to Concentration Camp

Author: Paul Weindling
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317132408
Format: PDF, Docs
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Representing a new wave of research and analysis on Nazi human experiments and coerced research, the chapters in this volume deliberately break from a top-down history limited to concentration camp experiments under the control of Himmler and the SS. Instead the collection positions extreme experiments (where research subjects were taken to the point of death) within a far wider spectrum of abusive coerced research. The book considers the experiments not in isolation but as integrated within wider aspects of medical provision as it became caught up in the Nazi war economy, revealing that researchers were opportunistic and retained considerable autonomy. The sacrifice of so many prisoners, patients and otherwise healthy people rounded up as detainees raises important issues about the identities of the research subjects: who were they, how did they feel, how many research subjects were there and how many survived? This underworld of the victims of the elite science of German medical institutes and clinics has until now remained a marginal historical concern. Jews were a target group, but so were gypsies/Sinti and Roma, the mentally ill, prisoners of war and partisans. By exploring when and in what numbers scientists selected one group rather than another, the book provides an important record of the research subjects having agency, reconstructing responses and experiential narratives, and recording how these experiments – iconic of extreme racial torture – represent one of the worst excesses of Nazism.

It All Depends on the Dose

Author: Ole Peter Grell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1315521075
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This is the first volume to take a broad historical sweep of the close relation between medicines and poisons in the Western tradition, and their interconnectedness. They are like two ends of a spectrum, for the same natural material can be medicine or poison, depending on the dose, and poisons can be transformed into medicines, while medicines can turn out to be poisons. The book looks at important moments in the history of the relationship between poisons and medicines in European history, from Roman times, with the Greek physician Galen, through the Renaissance and the maverick physician Paracelsus, to the present, when poisons are actively being turned into beneficial medicines.

Pathology in Practice

Author: Silvia De Renzi
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317083318
Format: PDF
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Post-mortems may have become a staple of our TV viewing, but the long history of this practice is still little known. This book provides a fresh account of the dissections that took place across early modern Europe on those who had died of a disease or in unclear circumstances. Drawing on different approaches and on sources as varied as notes taken at the dissection table, legal records and learned publications, the chapters explore how autopsies informed the understanding of pathology of all those involved. With a broad geography, including Rome, Amsterdam and Geneva, the book recaptures the lost worlds of physicians, surgeons, patients, families and civic authorities as they used corpses to understand diseases and make sense of suffering. The evidence from post-mortems was not straightforward, but between 1500 and 1750 medical practitioners rose to the challenge, proposing various solutions to the difficulties they encountered and creating a remarkable body of knowledge. The book shows the scope and diversity of this tradition and how laypeople contributed their knowledge and expectations to the wide-ranging exchanges stimulated by the opening of bodies.

Die Reformation des Bildes

Author: Joseph Leo Koerner
Publisher: C.H.Beck
ISBN: 3406712053
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Welche Rolle hat die Reformation für die Kunst gespielt, wie hat sie das christliche Bild verändert? Joseph Leo Koerner, einer der weltweit besten Kenner der Kunst der Lutherzeit, legt mit diesem Buch eine umfassende und faszinierende Studie zur Entwicklung der christlichen Kunst nach dem Bildersturm vor. Die Ereignisse einer Zeit, in der die Dominanz des Wortes gegenüber dem Bild propagiert wurde, in der man Bilder als Idole und Fetische verachtete und vernichtete, hatten gravierende Auswirkungen auf die bildende Kunst. Im Zentrum des Buches steht Cranachs „Reformationsaltar“ in der Stadtkirche zu Wittenberg – der Ort, an dem die protestantische Bilderzerstörung ihren Ausgang nahm. Cranachs Bild entstand als Reaktion auf diese umwälzenden historischen Ereignisse, die auch in der Kunstgeschichte einen Wendepunkt markieren. Wie kann man einen verborgenen Gott sichtbar darstellen? Die Antworten, die Cranach und seine Zeitgenossen auf diese zentrale, bildkritische Frage fanden, sind bis in die heutige Zeit wirksam.

Septem Defensiones

Author: Paracelsus
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Die «Sieben Verteidigungsreden» von 1538, eine der letzten Schriften aus Paracelsus' Feder, antworten auf Vorwürfe, die ihn über viele Lebensjahre hinweg verfolgt haben. Sie sprechen sparsam, doch mehr als jeder andere Text von seiner Person, seiner fühlbaren menschlichen Isolierung, seiner mangelnden Menschenkenntnis, seiner sachlichen Leidenschaft, seiner Heftigkeit, seiner zutiefst christlichen Haltung als Arzt. Indem Paracelsus sich verteidigt, werden die Konturen seines Welt- und Naturbildes erkennbar. Er erläutert seine Medizin, die sich auf den konkreten Zusammenhang von Leib und Kosmos begründet, er beobachtet das Auftreten neuer, auch psychiatrischer Krankheitsbilder und fordert eine durchsichtige medizinische Terminologie. Er wehrt sich gegen den Vorwurf der Giftmischerei, der sich an seine alchemisch gewonnenen Heilmittel heftet und prägt das geflügelte Wort «Die Dosis macht das Gift». Seine für die Zeitgenossen anstössige Landfahrerei erklärt Paracelsus als naturwissenschaftliches Erfahrungsprinzip und sucht mit radikalem Ernst nach der Verwirklichung einer auf Christus gegründeten Medizin. Die «Septem Defensiones» sind eines der frühesten Beispiele wissenschaftlicher Autobiographik. Der mündliche Klang dieser Reden macht nach Jahrhunderten Paracelsus' Stimme hörbar. Der ursprüngliche Text ist in einem schwer zugänglichen, mit lateinischen Einsprengseln vermischten frühen Neuhochdeutsch verfasst, dem schon Heinrich Heine (1834) attestiert: «In der deutschen Urschrift ist er (Paracelsus) schwer zu lesen, abstruser Stil, aber hie und da treten die groien Gedanken hervor mit groiem Wort. Er ist Naturphilosoph in der heutigen Bedeutung des Ausdrucks.»Die Abhandlung liegt jetzt in einer neuen ibertragung vor, ergänzt mit einer ausführlich kommentierenden Einführung. Diese neue Ausgabe enthält synoptisch einen Reprint der Huserschen Edition von 1589.