Theories of Causality

Author: John Losee
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351472291
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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What types of entities qualify as causes and effects? What is the relationship between cause and effect? How are causal claims to be assessed? The first question deals with the structure of the world; the second is about theories that interpret the relationship of causes to effects; while the third has to do with proper procedure in science and everyday life. This volume is a wide-ranging history of answers that have been given to these three questions, and their relationship to scientific understanding.Losee presents a number of theories of causality within a historical survey that emphasizes the interrelationship between these theories and developments in science. His analysis displays the strengths and weaknesses of these theories so as to contribute to our present understanding of causal relatedness.Among the positions discussed are those of Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Mill, Salmon, Lewis, and Woodward. Losee's analysis displays the strengths and weaknesses of theories that identify causal relatedness with regularity of sequence, probability increase, energy transfer, exchange of a conserved quantity, counterfactual dependence, and inferability.These theories are judged, in part,by their ability to resolvedifficulties posed by instances of overdetermination,causation by omission, preventive causation, and causation by disconnection. Since applications of the theories to these instances disagree, a strategy of employing multiple concepts of causation is examined.Theories of Causality also describes the particular difficulties for causal analysis posed by quantum mechanics. One such difficulty is the prohibition against combining a causal analysis of a quantum process with a spatio-temporal description of that process.

A New History of the Humanities

Author: Rens Bod
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199665214
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Offers the first overarching history of the humanities from Antiquity to the present.

A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science

Author: John Losee
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 9780198700555
Format: PDF, Kindle
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John Losee provides a balanced and engaging survey of the development of views about scientific method. Ideal for those coming to the subject for the first time, this fully updated new edition incorporates discussion on contemporary debates, including philosophy of biology, normative naturalism, theory appraisal, experimental practice, and scientific realism. Concise profiles of the major philosophers discussed within the text are provided, including Aristotle, Galileo, Newton, Whewell, Hempel, and Kuhn.

The Sociology of War and Violence

Author: Siniša Malešević
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139488597
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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War is a highly complex and dynamic form of social conflict. This book demonstrates the importance of using sociological tools to understand the changing character of war and organised violence. The author offers an original analysis of the historical and contemporary impact that coercion and warfare have on the transformation of social life, and vice versa. Although war and violence were decisive components in the formation of modernity most analyses tend to shy away from the sociological study of the gory origins of contemporary social life. In contrast, this book brings the study of organised violence to the fore by providing a wide-ranging sociological analysis that links classical and contemporary theories with specific historical and geographical contexts. Topics covered include violence before modernity, warfare in the modern age, nationalism and war, war propaganda, battlefield solidarity, war and social stratification, gender and organised violence, and the new wars debate.

The Meaning of Meaning

Author: Charles Kay Ogden
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781614275268
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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2013 Reprint of 1927 American Edition. Full facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. Revised second edition of this classic text. Although the original text was published in 1923 it has been used as a textbook in many fields including linguistics, philosophy, language, cognitive science and most recently semantics and semiotics in general. The book has been in print continuously since 1923. Richards sets forth a contextual theory of Signs: that Words and Things are connected through their occurrence together with things. The book would later influence A.J. Ayer's "Language, Truth and Logic, " and both the Richards-Ogden book and the Ayer book would, in turn, influence Alec King and Martin Ketley in the writing of their book "The Control of Language," which appeared in 1939. This book would in turn influence C.S. Lewis in the writing of his defense of natural law and objective values, "The Abolition of Man (1943)." It is accompanied by the two supplementary essays by Bronis aw Malinowski and F. G. Crookshank.

Versions of History from Antiquity to the Enlightenment

Author: Donald R. Kelley
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300047762
Format: PDF, ePub
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Annotation Contains texts from 112 historians of the last three millennia who discuss the problems, purposes, and methods of history writing. Kelley provides commentary and interpretation. Annotation(c) 2003 Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com).

Cause and Correlation in Biology

Author: Bill Shipley
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107442591
Format: PDF, Mobi
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A complete user's guide to structural equations explaining the underlying principals and practical implementation of these methods.