Thin Film Solar Cells From Earth Abundant Materials

Author: Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publisher: Newnes
ISBN: 0123971829
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The fundamental concept of the book is to explain how to make thin film solar cells from the abundant solar energy materials by low cost. The proper and optimized growth conditions are very essential while sandwiching thin films to make solar cell otherwise secondary phases play a role to undermine the working function of solar cells. The book illustrates growth and characterization of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film absorbers and their solar cells. The fabrication process of absorber layers by either vacuum or non-vacuum process is readily elaborated in the book, which helps for further development of cells. The characterization analyses such as XPS, XRD, SEM, AFM etc., lead to tailor the physical properties of the absorber layers to fit well for the solar cells. The role of secondary phases such as ZnS, Cu2-xS,SnS etc., which are determined by XPS, XRD or Raman, in the absorber layers is promptly discussed. The optical spectroscopy analysis, which finds band gap, optical constants of the films, is mentioned in the book. The electrical properties of the absorbers deal the influence of substrates, growth temperature, impurities, secondary phases etc. The low temperature I-V and C-V measurements of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells are clearly described. The solar cell parameters such as efficiency, fill factor, series resistance, parallel resistance provide handful information to understand the mechanism of physics of thin film solar cells in the book. The band structure, which supports to adjust interface states at the p-n junction of the solar cells is given. On the other hand the role of window layers with the solar cells is discussed. The simulation of theoretical efficiency of Cu2ZnSn(S1-xSex)4 thin film solar cells explains how much efficiency can be experimentally extracted from the cells. One of the first books exploring how to conduct research on thin film solar cells, including reducing costs Detailed instructions on conducting research

The Photophysics behind Photovoltaics and Photonics

Author: Guglielmo Lanzani
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527645144
Format: PDF, Kindle
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From a leading researcher in optical spectroscopy and electronic properties of novel semiconductors comes this much-needed toolbox title to understand the concepts behind the spectroscopy of advanced organic materials and how they work. The book thus provides basic and practical knowledge on material photophysics for planning, carrying out and understanding experiments in spectroscopy. It contains a collection of simple practical rules for data analysis and interpretation, together with a list of experimental techniques, including the latest methods. Each topic is complemented by examples taken from forefront research on nanomaterials, photovoltaics and photonics, and each chapter includes a discussion, examples, topical boxes, tables and figures. The whole is rounded off by a bibliography for further reading, major references and appendixes containing theoretical derivation and numerical code. The result is a quick guide for the spectroscopist who needs to grasp the concept of the experiments.

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaics

Author: Jonathan J. Scragg
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642229190
Format: PDF, Docs
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Jonathan Scragg documents his work on a very promising material suitable for use in solar cells. Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide (CZTS) is a low cost, earth-abundant material suitable for large scale deployment in photovoltaics. Jonathan pioneered and optimized a low cost route to this material involving electroplating of the three metals concerned, followed by rapid thermal processing (RTP) in sulfur vapour. His beautifully detailed RTP studies – combined with techniques such as XRD, EDX and Raman – reveal the complex relationships between composition, processing and photovoltaic performance. This exceptional thesis contributes to the development of clean, sustainable and alternative sources of energy

Solar Cell Materials

Author: Arthur Willoughby
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 111869581X
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book presents a comparison of solar cell materials, including both new materials based on organics, nanostructures and novel inorganics and developments in more traditional photovoltaic materials. It surveys the materials and materials trends in the field including third generation solar cells (multiple energy level cells, thermal approaches and the modification of the solar spectrum) with an eye firmly on low costs, energy efficiency and the use of abundant non-toxic materials.

Advanced Ceramic and Metallic Coating and Thin Film Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications

Author: Jing Zhang
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319599062
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book explores the recent developments, perspectives on future research, and pertinent data from academia, industry, and government research laboratory to discuss fundamental mechanisms as well as processing and applications of advanced metallic and ceramic thin film and coating materials for energy and environmental applications. It is a platform to disseminate the latest research progress related to processing, characterization, and modelling. The authors address both thermal barrier and environmental coatings; magnetic and thermoelectric materials; and solar cell and solid oxide fuel cell materials. It is appropriate supplementary reading for students and primary reading for researchers in materials science and engineering.

Earth Abundant Materials for Solar Cells

Author: Sadao Adachi
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119052785
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Systematically describes the physical and materials properties of copper-based quaternary chalcogenide semiconductor materials, enabling their potential for photovoltaic device applications. Intended for scientists and engineers, in particular, in the fields of multinary semiconductor physics and a variety of photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices.

Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics

Author: Arthur J. Nozik
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849739951
Format: PDF, Docs
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Photovoltaic systems enable the sun’s energy to be converted directly into electricity using semiconductor solar cells. The ultimate goal of photovoltaic research and development is to reduce the cost of solar power to reach or even become lower than the cost of electricity generated from fossil and nuclear fuels. The power conversion efficiency and the cost per unit area of the phototvoltaic system are critical factors that determine the cost of photovoltaic electricity. Until recently, the power conversion efficiency of single-junction photovoltaic cells has been limited to approximately 33% - the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. This book presents the latest developments in photovoltaics which seek to either reach or surpass the Shockley-Queisser limit, and to lower the cell cost per unit area. Progress toward this ultimate goal is presented for the three generations of photovoltaic cells: the 1st generation based on crystalline silicon semiconductors; the 2nd generation based on thin film silicon, compound semiconductors, amorphous silicon, and various mesoscopic structures; and the 3rd generation based on the unique properties of nanoscale materials, new inorganic and organic photoconversion materials, highly efficient multi-junction cells with low cost solar concentration, and novel photovoltaic processes. The extent to which photovoltaic materials and processes can meet the expectations of efficient and cost effective solar energy conversion to electricity is discussed. Written by an international team of expert contributors, and with researchers in academia, national research laboratories, and industry in mind, this book is a comprehensive guide to recent progress in photovoltaics and essential for any library or laboratory in the field.

Practical Ecocriticism

Author: Glen A. Love
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
ISBN: 9780813922454
Format: PDF
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Practical Ecocriticismis the first book to ground environmental literature firmly in the life sciences, particularly evolutionary biology, and to attempt to bridge the ever-widening gulf between the "Two Cultures." Glen Love—himself one of the founders of ecocriticism—argues that literary studies has been diminished by a general lack of recognition for the vital role the biological foundation of human life plays in cultural imagination. Love presents with great clarity and directness an invaluable model for how to incorporate Darwinian ideas—the basis for all modern biology and ecology—into ecocritical thinking. Beginning with an overview of the field of literature and environment and its claim to our attention, and arguing for a biologically informed theoretical base for literary studies, Love then aims the lens of this critical perspective on the pastoral genre and works by canonical writers such as Willa Cather, Ernest Hemingway, and William Dean Howells. A markedly interdisciplinary and refreshingly accessible work, Practical Ecocriticism will interest and challenge the entire ecocritical community, as well as humanists, social scientists, and others concerned with the current rediscovery of human nature.

Chalcogenide Photovoltaics

Author: Roland Scheer
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9783527633722
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This first comprehensive description of the most important material properties and device aspects closes the gap between general books on solar cells and journal articles on chalcogenide-based photovoltaics. Written by two very renowned authors with years of practical experience in the field, the book covers II-VI and I-III-VI2 materials as well as energy conversion at heterojunctions. It also discusses the latest semiconductor heterojunction models and presents modern analysis concepts. Thin film technology is explained with an emphasis on current and future techniques for mass production, and the book closes with a compendium of failure analysis in photovoltaic thin film modules. With its overview of the semiconductor physics and technology needed, this practical book is ideal for students, researchers, and manufacturers, as well as for the growing number of engineers and researchers working in companies and institutes on chalcogenide photovoltaics.

Thin Film Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

Author: Rolf Brendel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527635068
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This introduction to the physics of silicon solar cells focuses on thin cells, while reviewing and discussing the current status of the important technology. An analysis of the spectral quantum efficiency of thin solar cells is given as well as a full set of analytical models. This is the first comprehensive treatment of light trapping techniques for the enhancement of the optical absorption in thin silicon films.