To Place Our Deeds

Author: Shirley Ann Wilson Moore
Publisher: Univ of California Press
ISBN: 0520229207
Format: PDF
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"A fascinating study. . . . It truly comes alive in its expert use of African American oral histories"—Waldo E. Martin, University of California, Berkeley

Sweet Freedom s Plains

Author: Shirley Ann Wilson Moore
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 0806156856
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The westward migration of nearly half a million Americans in the mid-nineteenth century looms large in U.S. history. Classic images of rugged Euro-Americans traversing the plains in their prairie schooners still stir the popular imagination. But this traditional narrative, no matter how alluring, falls short of the actual—and far more complex—reality of the overland trails. Among the diverse peoples who converged on the western frontier were African American pioneers—men, women, and children. Whether enslaved or free, they too were involved in this transformative movement. Sweet Freedom’s Plains is a powerful retelling of the migration story from their perspective. Tracing the journeys of black overlanders who traveled the Mormon, California, Oregon, and other trails, Shirley Ann Wilson Moore describes in vivid detail what they left behind, what they encountered along the way, and what they expected to find in their new, western homes. She argues that African Americans understood advancement and prosperity in ways unique to their situation as an enslaved and racially persecuted people, even as they shared many of the same hopes and dreams held by their white contemporaries. For African Americans, the journey westward marked the beginning of liberation and transformation. At the same time, black emigrants’ aspirations often came into sharp conflict with real-world conditions in the West. Although many scholars have focused on African Americans who settled in the urban West, their early trailblazing voyages into the Oregon Country, Utah Territory, New Mexico Territory, and California deserve greater attention. Having combed censuses, maps, government documents, and white overlanders’ diaries, along with the few accounts written by black overlanders or passed down orally to their living descendants, Moore gives voice to the countless, mostly anonymous black men and women who trekked the plains and mountains. Sweet Freedom’s Plains places African American overlanders where they belong—at the center of the western migration narrative. Their experiences and perspectives enhance our understanding of this formative period in American history.

The African American Urban Experience

Author: J. Trotter
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1403979162
Format: PDF, Mobi
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From the early years of the African slave trade to America, blacks have lived and laboured in urban environments. Yet the transformation of rural blacks into a predominantly urban people is a relatively recent phenomenon - only during World War One did African Americans move into cities in large numbers, and only during World War Two did more blacks reside in cities than in the countryside. By the early 1970s, blacks had not only made the transition from rural to urban settings, but were almost evenly distributed between the cities of the North and the West on the one hand and the South on the other. In their quest for full citizenship rights, economic democracy, and release from an oppressive rural past, black southerners turned to urban migration and employment in the nation's industrial sector as a new 'Promised Land' or 'Flight from Egypt'. In order to illuminate these transformations in African American urban life, this book brings together urban history; contemporary social, cultural, and policy research; and comparative perspectives on race, ethnicity, and nationality within and across national boundaries.

Blacks in the American West and Beyond America Canada and Mexico

Author: George H. Junne
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313312083
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Comprehensively indexing a variety of research materials on Blacks in the North American West, Junne offers an invaluable navigational tool for scholars of American and African-American history.

Seeking El Dorado

Author: Autry Museum of Western Heritage
Publisher: University of Washington Press
ISBN: 9780295980829
Format: PDF, ePub
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Traces the history of African Americans in California

The Elusive Eden

Author: Richard B. Rice
Publisher: Waveland Press
ISBN: 1478635223
Format: PDF, Mobi
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California is a region of rich geographic and human diversity. The authors of The Elusive Eden masterfully balance the varying environmental and cultural forces that have shaped the history of the most populous of the United States. California’s story is told with a narrative integrating the area’s north/south, coastal/interior, and urban/rural dichotomies. Questions of the role that Californians of every race, ethnicity, and gender are considered, reflecting the significant contribution each has made to make California what it is. The book’s organization follows a chronological approach, but each part begins with a feature chapter centered around a particular theme of that period. By focusing on individuals or groups affecting a given period, the authors bring California history to life and encourage deeper thought about the issues facing Californians of the time.

Staging Migrations toward an American West

Author: Marta Effinger-Crichlow
Publisher: University Press of Colorado
ISBN: 1492012610
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Staging Migrations toward an American West examines how black women's theatrical and everyday performances of migration toward the American West expose the complexities of their struggles for sociopolitical emancipation. While migration is often viewed as merely a physical process, Effinger-Crichlow expands the concept to include a series of symbolic internal journeys within confined and unconfined spaces. Four case studies consider how the featured women—activist Ida B. Wells, singer Sissieretta "Black Patti” Jones, World War II black female defense-industry workers, and performance artist Rhodessa Jones—imagined and experienced the American West geographically and symbolically at different historical moments. Dissecting the varied ways they used migration to survive in the world from the viewpoint of theater and performance theory, Effinger-Crichlow reconceptualizes the migration histories of black women in nineteenth- and twentieth-century America. This interdisciplinary study expands the understanding of the African American struggle for unconstrained movement and full citizenship in the United States and will interest students and scholars of American and African American history, women and gender studies, theater, and performance theory.

African Americans and the Color Line in Ohio 1915 1930

Author: William Wayne Giffin
Publisher: Ohio State University Press
ISBN: 0814210031
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Writing in true social history tradition, William W. Giffin presents a magisterial study of African Americans focusing on times that saw the culmination of trends that were fundamentally important in shaping the twentieth century. While many scholars have examined African Americans in the south and such large cities as New York and Chicago during this time, other important urban areas have been ignored. Ohio, with its large but very different urban centers-notably, Cleveland, Columbus, and Cincinnati-provides Giffin with the wealth of statistical data and qualitative material that he uses to argue that the "color line" in Ohio hardened during this time period as the Great Migration gained force. His data shows, too, that the color line varied according to urban area-it hardened progressively as one traveled South in the state. In addition, whereas previous studies have concentrated on activism at the national level through such groups as the NAACP, Giffin shows how African American men and women in Ohio constantly negotiated the color line on a local level, through both resistance and accommodation on a daily and very interpersonal level with whites, other blacks, and people of different ethnic, class, and racial backgrounds. This early grassroots resistance provided the groundwork for the Civil Rights movement that would gain momentum some twenty years later.

African American Women Confront the West 1600 2000

Author: Quintard Taylor
Publisher: University of Oklahoma Press
ISBN: 9780806139791
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Reconstructs the history of black women’s participation in western settlement “A stellar collection of essays by talented authors who explore fascinating topics.”—Journal of American Ethnic History African American Women Confront the West, 1600–2000 is the first major historical anthology on the topic. The editors argue that African American women in the West played active, though sometimes unacknowledged, roles in shaping the political, ideological, and social currents that have influenced the United States over the past three centuries. Contributors to this volume explore African American women’s life experiences in the West, their influences on the experiences of the region’s diverse peoples, and their legacy in rural and urban communities from Montana to Texas and from California to Kansas. The essayists explore what it has meant to be an African American woman, from the era of Spanish colonial rule in eighteenth-century New Mexico to the black power era of the 1960s and 1970s.

Living for the City

Author: Donna Jean Murch
Publisher: UNC Press Books
ISBN: 0807895857
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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In this nuanced and groundbreaking history, Donna Murch argues that the Black Panther Party (BPP) started with a study group. Drawing on oral history and untapped archival sources, she explains how a relatively small city with a recent history of African American settlement produced such compelling and influential forms of Black Power politics. During an era of expansion and political struggle in California's system of public higher education, black southern migrants formed the BPP. In the early 1960s, attending Merritt College and other public universities radicalized Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, and many of the young people who joined the Panthers' rank and file. In the face of social crisis and police violence, the most disfranchised sectors of the East Bay's African American community--young, poor, and migrant--challenged the legitimacy of state authorities and of an older generation of black leadership. By excavating this hidden history, Living for the City broadens the scholarship of the Black Power movement by documenting the contributions of black students and youth who created new forms of organization, grassroots mobilization, and political literacy.