Topological Insulators

Author: Shun-Qing Shen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364232858X
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Topological insulators are insulating in the bulk, but process metallic states present around its boundary owing to the topological origin of the band structure. The metallic edge or surface states are immune to weak disorder or impurities, and robust against the deformation of the system geometry. This book, the first of its kind on topological insulators, presents a unified description of topological insulators from one to three dimensions based on the modified Dirac equation. A series of solutions of the bound states near the boundary are derived, and the existing conditions of these solutions are described. Topological invariants and their applications to a variety of systems from one-dimensional polyacetalene, to two-dimensional quantum spin Hall effect and p-wave superconductors, and three-dimensional topological insulators and superconductors or superfluids are introduced, helping readers to better understand this fascinating new field. This book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in the field of topological insulators and related areas. Shun-Qing Shen is a Professor at the Department of Physics, the University of Hong Kong, China.

Topological Insulators

Author: Frank Ortmann
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527681604
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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There are only few discoveries and new technologies in physical sciences that have the potential to dramatically alter and revolutionize our electronic world. Topological insulators are one of them. The present book for the first time provides a full overview and in-depth knowledge about this hot topic in materials science and condensed matter physics. Techniques such as angle-resolved photoemission spectrometry (ARPES), advanced solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or scanning-tunnel microscopy (STM) together with key principles of topological insulators such as spin-locked electronic states, the Dirac point, quantum Hall effects and Majorana fermions are illuminated in individual chapters and are described in a clear and logical form. Written by an international team of experts, many of them directly involved in the very first discovery of topological insulators, the book provides the readers with the knowledge they need to understand the electronic behavior of these unique materials. Being more than a reference work, this book is essential for newcomers and advanced researchers working in the field of topological insulators.

The Role of Topology in Materials

Author: Sanju Gupta
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319765965
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book presents the most important advances in the class of topological materials and discusses the topological characterization, modeling and metrology of materials. Further, it addresses currently emerging characterization techniques such as optical and acoustic, vibrational spectroscopy (Brillouin, infrared, Raman), electronic, magnetic, fluorescence correlation imaging, laser lithography, small angle X-ray and neutron scattering and other techniques, including site-selective nanoprobes. The book analyzes the topological aspects to identify and quantify these effects in terms of topology metrics. The topological materials are ubiquitous and range from (i) de novo nanoscale allotropes of carbons in various forms such as nanotubes, nanorings, nanohorns, nanowalls, peapods, graphene, etc. to (ii) metallo-organic frameworks, (iii) helical gold nanotubes, (iv) Möbius conjugated polymers, (v) block co-polymers, (vi) supramolecular assemblies, to (vii) a variety of biological and soft-matter systems, e.g. foams and cellular materials, vesicles of different shapes and genera, biomimetic membranes, and filaments, (viii) topological insulators and topological superconductors, (ix) a variety of Dirac materials including Dirac and Weyl semimetals, as well as (x) knots and network structures. Topological databases and algorithms to model such materials have been also established in this book. In order to understand and properly characterize these important emergent materials, it is necessary to go far beyond the traditional paradigm of microscopic structure–property–function relationships to a paradigm that explicitly incorporates topological aspects from the outset to characterize and/or predict the physical properties and currently untapped functionalities of these advanced materials. Simulation and modeling tools including quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, 3D visualization and tomography are also indispensable. These concepts have found applications in condensed matter physics, materials science and engineering, physical chemistry and biophysics, and the various topics covered in the book have potential applications in connection with novel synthesis techniques, sensing and catalysis. As such, the book offers a unique resource for graduate students and researchers alike.

Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors

Author: B. Andrei Bernevig
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 1400846730
Format: PDF, ePub
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This graduate-level textbook is the first pedagogical synthesis of the field of topological insulators and superconductors, one of the most exciting areas of research in condensed matter physics. Presenting the latest developments, while providing all the calculations necessary for a self-contained and complete description of the discipline, it is ideal for graduate students and researchers preparing to work in this area, and it will be an essential reference both within and outside the classroom. The book begins with simple concepts such as Berry phases, Dirac fermions, Hall conductance and its link to topology, and the Hofstadter problem of lattice electrons in a magnetic field. It moves on to explain topological phases of matter such as Chern insulators, two- and three-dimensional topological insulators, and Majorana p-wave wires. Additionally, the book covers zero modes on vortices in topological superconductors, time-reversal topological superconductors, and topological responses/field theory and topological indices. The book also analyzes recent topics in condensed matter theory and concludes by surveying active subfields of research such as insulators with point-group symmetries and the stability of topological semimetals. Problems at the end of each chapter offer opportunities to test knowledge and engage with frontier research issues. Topological Insulators and Topological Superconductors will provide graduate students and researchers with the physical understanding and mathematical tools needed to embark on research in this rapidly evolving field.

Spin Physics in Semiconductors

Author: Mikhail I. Dyakonov
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540788204
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The purpose of this collective book is to present a non-exhaustive survey of sp- related phenomena in semiconductors with a focus on recent research. In some sense it may be regarded as an updated version of theOpticalOrientation book, which was entirely devoted to spin physics in bulk semiconductors. During the 24 years that have elapsed, we have witnessed, on the one hand, an extraordinary development in the wonderful semiconductor physics in two dim- sions with the accompanying revolutionary applications. On the other hand, during the last maybe 15 years there was a strong revival in the interest in spin phen- ena, in particular in low-dimensional semiconductor structures. While in the 1970s and 1980s the entire world population of researchers in the ?eld never exceeded 20 persons, now it can be counted by the hundreds and the number of publications by the thousands. This explosive growth is stimulated, to a large extent, by the hopes that the electron and/or nuclear spins in a semiconductor will help to accomplish the dream of factorizing large numbers by quantum computing and eventually to develop a new spin-based electronics, or “spintronics”. Whether any of this will happen or not, still remains to be seen. Anyway, these ideas have resulted in a large body of interesting and exciting research, which is a good thing by itself. The ?eld of spin physics in semiconductors is extremely rich and interesting with many spectacular effects in optics and transport.

Quantum Plasmonics

Author: Sergey I. Bozhevolnyi
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319458205
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book presents the latest results of quantum properties of light in the nanostructured environment supporting surface plasmons, including waveguide quantum electrodynamics, quantum emitters, strong-coupling phenomena and lasing in plasmonic structures. Different approaches are described for controlling the emission and propagation of light with extreme light confinement and field enhancement provided by surface plasmons. Recent progress is reviewed in both experimental and theoretical investigations within quantum plasmonics, elucidating the fundamental physical phenomena involved and discussing the realization of quantum-controlled devices, including single-photon sources, transistors and ultra-compact circuitry at the nanoscale.

Quantum Systems in Physics Chemistry and Biology

Author: Alia Tadjer
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319502557
Format: PDF
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This book reviews the most significant developments in quantum methodology applied to a broad variety of problems in chemistry, physics, and biology. In particular, it discusses atomic and molecular structure, dynamics and spectroscopy as well as applications of quantum theory to biological and condensed matter systems. The volume contains twenty-four selected, peer-reviewed contributions based on the presentations given at the Twentieth International Workshop on Quantum Systems in Chemistry, Physics, and Biology (QSCP-XX), held in Varna, Bulgaria, in September 2015. It is divided into five sections containing the most relevant papers written by leading experts in the fields. This book will appeal to advanced graduate students, researchers, and academics involved in theoretical, quantum or statistical and computational chemical physics and physical chemistry.

A Short Course on Topological Insulators

Author: János K. Asbóth
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319256076
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This course-based primer provides newcomers to the field with a concise introduction to some of the core topics in the emerging field of topological insulators. The aim is to provide a basic understanding of edge states, bulk topological invariants, and of the bulk--boundary correspondence with as simple mathematical tools as possible. The present approach uses noninteracting lattice models of topological insulators, building gradually on these to arrive from the simplest one-dimensional case (the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model for polyacetylene) to two-dimensional time-reversal invariant topological insulators (the Bernevig-Hughes-Zhang model for HgTe). In each case the discussion of simple toy models is followed by the formulation of the general arguments regarding topological insulators. The only prerequisite for the reader is a working knowledge in quantum mechanics, the relevant solid state physics background is provided as part of this self-contained text, which is complemented by end-of-chapter problems.