Tort Liability for Human Rights Abuses

Author: George P Fletcher
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847317960
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Advancing a bold theory of the relevance of tort law in the fight against human rights abuses, celebrated US law professor George Fletcher here challenges the community of international lawyers to think again about how they can use the Alien Tort Statute. Beginning with an historical analysis Fletcher shows how tort and criminal law originally evolved to deal with similar problems, how tort came to be seen as primarily concerned with negligence and how the Alien Tort Statute has helped establish the importance of tort law in international cases. In a series of cases starting with Filartiga and culminating most recently in Sosa, Fletcher shows how torture cases led to the reawakening of the Alien Tort Statute, changing US law and giving legal practitioners a tool with which to assist victims of torture and other extreme human rights abuses. This leads to an examination of Agent Orange and the possible commission of war crimes in the course of its utilisation, and the theory of liability for aiding and abetting the US military and other military forces when they commit war crimes. The book concludes by looking at the cutting-edge cases in this area, particularly those involving liability for funding terrorism, and the remedies available, particularly the potential offered by the compensation chamber in the International Criminal Court.

Zivil und strafrechtliche Unternehmensverantwortung f r Menschenrechtsverletzungen

Author: Markus Krajewski
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662550164
Format: PDF
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Der Band enthält Untersuchungen zu zivil- und strafrechtlichen Konsequenzen unternehmerischen Handelns bei Menschenrechtsverletzungen. Im Zentrum stehen dabei deutsches Zivil-, Handels- und Internationales Privatrecht sowie deutsches und internationales Strafrecht. Hinzu treten Analysen des englischen und US-amerikanischen Haftungsrechts. Die Beiträge dieses Bandes fassen den aktuellen Forschungs- und Diskussionsstand zusammen und zeigen sowohl rechtspolitische Handlungsmöglichkeiten als auch weiteren Forschungsbedarf auf. Die in dem Band erörterten und analysierten Fragen sind zugleich als Ausgangspunkt und Referenzrahmen für ein besseres Verständnis und eine Weiterentwicklung des Zusammenhangs von Wirtschaft und Menschenrechten.

Business and Human Rights

Author: Nadia Bernaz
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
ISBN: 1317233859
Format: PDF, ePub
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Business corporations can and do violate human rights all over the world, and they are often not held to account. Emblematic cases and situations such as the state of the Niger Delta and the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory are examples of corporate human rights abuses which are not adequately prevented and remedied. Business and human rights as a field seeks to enhance the accountability of business – companies and businesspeople – in the human rights area, or, to phrase it differently, to bridge the accountability gap. Bridging the accountability gap is to be understood as both setting standards and holding corporations and businesspeople to account if violations occur. Adopting a legal perspective, this book presents the ways in which this dual undertaking has been and could be further carried out in the future, and evaluates the extent to which the various initiatives in the field bridge the corporate accountability gap. It looks at the historical background of the field of business and human rights, and examines salient periods, events and cases. The book then goes on to explore the relevance of international human rights law and international criminal law for global business. International soft law and policy initiatives which have blossomed in recent years are evaluated along with private modes of regulation. The book also examines how domestic law, especially the domestic law of multinational companies’ home countries, can be used to prevent and redress corporate related human rights violations.

Damages for Violations of Human Rights

Author: Ewa Bagińska
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319189506
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This volume analyses the legal grounds, premises and extent of pecuniary compensation for violations of human rights in national legal systems. The scope of comparison includes liability regimes in general and in detail, the correlation between pecuniary remedies available under international law and under domestic law, and special (alternative) compensation systems. All sources of human rights violations are embraced, including historical injustices and systematical and gross violations. The book is a collection of nineteen contributions written by public international law, international human rights and private law experts, covering fifteen European jurisdictions (including Central and Eastern Europe), the United States, Israel and EU law. The contributions, initially prepared for the 19th International Congress of Comparative law in Vienna (2014), present the latest developments in legislation, scholarship and case-law concerning domestic causes of action in cases of human rights abuses. The book concludes with a comparative report which assesses the developments in tort law and public liability law, the role of the constitutionalisation of the right to damages as well as the court practice related to the process of enforcement of human rights through monetary remedies. This country-by-country comparison allows to consider whether the value of protection of human rights as expressed in international treaties, ius cogens and in national constitutional laws justifies the conclusion that the interests at stake should enjoy protection under the existing civil liability rules, or that a new cause of action, or even a whole new set of rules, should be created in national systems.

Corporations and Transnational Human Rights Litigation

Author: Sarah Joseph
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847310745
Format: PDF, Docs
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Since the mid-1980s,beginning with the unsuccessful Union Carbide litigation in the USA, litigants have been exploring ways of holding multinational corporations [MNCs] liable for offshore human rights abuses in the courts of the companies' home States. The highest profile cases have been the human rights claims brought against MNCs (such as Unocal, Shell, Rio Tinto, Coca Cola, and Talisman) under the Alien Tort Claims Act in the United States. Such claims also raise issues under customary international law (which may be directly applicable in US federal law) and the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations [RICO] statute. Another legal front is found in the USA, England and Australia, where courts have become more willing to exercise jurisdiction over transnational common law tort claims against home corporations. Futhermore, a corporation's human rights practices were indirectly targeted under trade practices law in groundbreaking litigation in California against sportsgoods manufacturer Nike. This new study examines these developments and the procedural arguments (eg regarding personal jurisdiction and especially forum non conveniens) which have been used to block litigation, as well as the principles which can be gleaned from cases which have settled. The analysis is important for human rights victims in order to know the boundaries of possible available legal redress. It is also important for MNCs, which must now take human rights into account in managing the legal risks (as well as moral and reputation risks) associated with offshore projects.

Tort Law in the Jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights

Author: Attila Fenyves
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 311026000X
Format: PDF, ePub
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The goal of this study is to provide a general overview and thorough analysis of how the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) deals with tort law issues such as damage, causation, wrongfulness, fault and compensation - namely when applying Art. 41 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Methodological approaches to the tort law of the ECHR as well as the perspectives of human rights and tort law and public international law are also addressed.

Accountability for Human Rights Atrocities in International Law

Author: Steven R. Ratner
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 9780198298717
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The fall of dictatorial regimes and the eruption of destructive civil conflicts around the world have led to calls for holding individuals accountable for human rights atrocities. International law had little to say on this subject from the time of the Nuremberg and Tokyo trials fifty years ago until very recently. In this well-researched book, Steven Ratner and Jason Abrams offer a comprehensive study of the promise and limitations of international criminal law as a means of enforcing international human rights and humanitarian law. They provide a searching analysis of the principal crimes under the law of nations, such as genocide and crimes against humanity. They go on to appraise the most important prosecutorial and other mechanisms developed to bring individuals to justice. After applying their conclusions in a detailed case study, the authors offer a series of compelling conclusions on the prospects for accountability. In this new edition the authors also cover recent developments such as the jurisprudence of the UN's Yugoslavia and Rwanda tribunals, new domestic attempts at accountability, and the International Criminal Court. This new edition has been revised and updated to include developments since 1997, including domestic prosecutions and truth commission, the work of the UN's Yugoslavia and Rwand Tribunals, and the International Criminal Court.

Multinational Enterprises and Tort Liabilities

Author: Muzaffer Eroglu
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 1848444982
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book conducts an interdisciplinary and comparative examination of tort liabilities of multinational enterprises (MNEs). It examines the social, economic, managerial and legal characteristics of MNEs and compares the findings of this examination to the current understanding of MNEs in the way that tort liability is applied to them. Existing laws and principles related to liability of MNEs are explored from a variety of jurisdictions with the aim of assessing whether these laws are adequate for the challenges that modern MNEs create. Muzaffer Eroglu also proposes solutions to the problems of tort liability of MNEs. Comparing the theory of control in existing laws and the theory of control in business management structure, Multinational Enterprises and Tort Liabilities will be of great interest to academics, researchers, students and practitioners. It will also appeal to NGOs particularly interested with the liabilities of MNEs for their human rights breaches.

Torture as Tort

Author: Craig Scott
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847316808
Format: PDF
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The controversial nature of seeking globalised justice through national courts has become starkly apparent in the wake of the Pinochet case in which the Spanish legal system sought to bring to account under international criminal law the former President of Chile,for violations in Chile of human rights of non-Spaniards. Some have reacted to the involvement of Spanish and British judges in sanctioning a former head of state as nothing more than legal imperialism while others have termed it positive globalisation. While the international legal and associated statutory bases for such criminal prosecutions are firm, the same cannot be said of the enterprise of imposing civil liability for the same human-rights-violating conduct that gives rise to criminal responsibility. In this work leading scholars from around the world address the host of complex issues raised by transnational human rights litigation. There has been, to date, little treatment, let alone a comprehensive assessment, of the merits and demerits of US-style transnational human rights litigation by non-American legal scholars and practitioners. The book seeks not so much to fill this gap as to start the process of doing so, with a view to stimulating debate amongst scholars and policy-makers. The book's doctrinal coverage and analytical inquiries will also be extremely relevant to the world of transnational legal practice beyond the specific question of human rights litigation.

Making the American Century

Author: Bruce J. Schulman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199323968
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The twentieth century has been popularly seen as "the American Century," a long period in which the United States had amassed the economic resources, the political and military strength, and the moral prestige to assume global leadership. By century's end, the trajectory of American politics, the sense of ever waxing federal power, and the nation's place in the world seemed less assured. Americans of many stripes came to contest the standard narratives of nation building and international hegemony charted by generations of historians. In this volume, a group of distinguished U.S. historians confronts the teleological view of the inexorable transformation of the United States into a modern nation. The contributors analyze a host of ways in which local places were drawn into a wider polity and culture, while at the same time revealing how national and international structures and ideas created new kinds of local movements and local energies. Rather than seeing the century as a series of conflicts between liberalism and conservatism, they illustrate the ways in which each of these political forces shaped its efforts over the other's cumulative achievements, accommodating to shifts in government, social mores, and popular culture. They demonstrate that international connections have transformed domestic life in myriad ways and, in turn, that the American presence in the world has been shaped by its distinctive domestic political culture. Finally, they break down boundaries between the public and private sectors, showcasing the government's role in private life and how private organizations influenced national politics. Revisiting and revising many of the chestnuts of American political history, this volume challenges received wisdom about the twentieth-century American experience.