Towards Juristocracy

Author: Ran Hirschl
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674038677
Format: PDF, Kindle
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In countries and supranational entities around the globe, constitutional reform has transferred an unprecedented amount of power from representative institutions to judiciaries. The constitutionalization of rights and the establishment of judicial review are widely believed to have benevolent and progressive origins, and significant redistributive, power-diffusing consequences. Ran Hirschl challenges this conventional wisdom. Drawing upon a comprehensive comparative inquiry into the political origins and legal consequences of the recent constitutional revolutions in Canada, Israel, New Zealand, and South Africa, Hirschl shows that the trend toward constitutionalization is hardly driven by politicians' genuine commitment to democracy, social justice, or universal rights. Rather, it is best understood as the product of a strategic interplay among hegemonic yet threatened political elites, influential economic stakeholders, and judicial leaders. This self-interested coalition of legal innovators determines the timing, extent, and nature of constitutional reforms. Hirschl demonstrates that whereas judicial empowerment through constitutionalization has a limited impact on advancing progressive notions of distributive justice, it has a transformative effect on political discourse. The global trend toward juristocracy, Hirschl argues, is part of a broader process whereby political and economic elites, while they profess support for democracy and sustained development, attempt to insulate policymaking from the vicissitudes of democratic politics.

Die moderne Isonomie

Author: Gerald Stourzh
Publisher: Böhlau Verlag Wien
ISBN: 3205200950
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Gerald Stourzh stellt den ungewohnten Begriff der „Isonomie“ zur Diskussion, der die beiden „miteinander verschränkten Legitimationssäulen politischer Herrschaft, Demokratie und Menschenrechte“ (Jürgen Habermas) miteinander verbindet. Isonomie, im antiken Griechenland ein Vorläuferbegriff für Demokratie, setzt sich aus den Worten „gleich“ (ísos) und „Gesetz“ (nómos) zusammen und ist am besten als „Gleichberechtigungsordnung“ wiederzugeben. Die beidern Brennpunkte der Isonomie sind einerseits das demokratische Stimmrecht, andererseits das Recht auf die individuelle Grund- oder Menschenrechtsbeschwerde. Stourzh stellt die Isonomie in den größeren historischen Zusammenhang der Ablösung des Paradigmas der Abstufungen durch das Paradigma der Angleichungen in der Geschichte des Westens seit dem 18. Jahrhundert.

Das Parteien Paradox

Author: Emanuel V. Towfigh
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
ISBN: 9783161536977
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Demokratien weisen überall in der Welt Krisensymptome auf: Wahlbeteiligung, Akzeptanz politischer Entscheidungen und Vertrauen in die politischen Institutionen sinken stetig. Doch der Verdruss gilt nicht Demokratie und Politik, sondern Parteien und Politikern. Hier setzt Emanuel V. Towfigh an und geht der Frage nach, in welchem Verhältnis die grundgesetzliche Konzeption von Demokratie zu ihrer institutionellen Umsetzung steht. Zunächst rekonstruiert er das vorherrschende Leitbild der demokratischen Ordnung, demzufolge der politische Wettbewerb widerstreitende Interessen zu gemeinwohldienlichen Entscheidungen aggregiert. Aber auch negative Wirkungen der politischen Parteien lassen sich, gleichsam spiegelbildlich, auf das überkommene Leitbild zurückführen. Politische Parteien haben also eine paradoxe Wirkung: Demokratische Entscheidungen lassen sich heute nicht ohne sie legitimieren, aber sie bescheren gleichzeitig dramatische Legitimationsprobleme. Will man die negativen Wirkungen der Parteien reduzieren, bedarf es einer Neuausrichtung des Leitbildes von Demokratie, für die die Arbeit erste Fluchtpunkte formuliert.

The Supreme Court and the Idea of Constitutionalism

Author: Steven Kautz
Publisher: University of Pennsylvania Press
ISBN: 9780812206074
Format: PDF, Docs
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From Brown v. Board of Education to Roe v. Wade to Bush v. Gore, the Supreme Court has, over the past fifty years, assumed an increasingly controversial place in American national political life. As the recurring struggles over nominations to the Court illustrate, few questions today divide our political community more profoundly than those concerning the Court's proper role as protector of liberties and guardian of the Constitution. If the nation is today in the midst of a "culture war," the contest over the Supreme Court is certainly one of its principal battlefields. In this volume, distinguished constitutional scholars aim to move debate beyond the sound bites that divide the opposing parties to more fundamental discussions about the nature of constitutionalism. Toward this end, the volume includes chapters on the philosophical and historical origins of the idea of constitutionalism; on theories of constitutionalism in American history in particular; on the practices of constitutionalism around the globe; and on the parallel emergence of—and the persistent tensions between—constitutionalism and democracy throughout the modern world. In democracies, the primary point of having a constitution is to place some matters beyond politics and partisan contest. And yet it seems equally clear that constitutionalism of this kind results in a struggle over the meaning or proper interpretation of the constitution, a struggle that is itself deeply political. Although the volume represents a variety of viewpoints and approaches, this struggle, which is the central paradox of constitutionalism, is the ultimate theme of all the essays.

Die Grenzen der Verfassung

Author: Michael Hein
Publisher: Nomos Verlag
ISBN: 3845291591
Format: PDF, ePub
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Von den "Grenzen der Verfassung" ist seit dem frühen 19. Jahrhundert die Rede. Dieser Sonderband widmet sich in interdisziplinärer Perspektive der Frage, ob und in welcher Weise der Grenzbegriff für die verfassungspolitische Analyse systematisch fruchtbar gemacht werden kann. Dabei wird gezeigt, dass moderne Verfassungen nicht nur selbst aktiv Grenzen ziehen, sondern sich auch ihrerseits vielfältigen Grenzziehungen gegenüber sehen. Diese Grenzen werden von den politik- und rechtswissenschaftlichen Beiträgen dieses Sonderbandes systematisch unter die Lupe genommen. Vier Grenzziehungen werden näher untersucht: die Grenzen der Verfassungsgebung, die Grenzen der Effektivität und Präzision von Verfassungen, die Grenzen der Legitimität von Verfassungen und die nationalstaatlichen Verfassungsgrenzen. Darüber hinaus werden die zentralen methodischen und inhaltlichen Fragen diskutiert, denen sich die Verfassungsforschung mit Rückgriff auf den Grenzbegriff zukünftig widmen sollte. Mit Beiträgen von Hubertus Buchstein, Annette Förster, Verena Frick, Michael Hein, Ran Hirschl, Nils J. Janson, Christina Kamm, Uwe Kranenpohl, Oliver W. Lembcke, Matthias Lemke, Felix Petersen, Susanne Pickel, Theresia Smolka, Toralf Stark, Silvia von Steinsdorff, Simone Szczerbak, Manon Westphal, Fabian Wittreck

Justice Judocracy and Democracy in India

Author: Sudhanshu Ranjan
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317809785
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book offers an innovative approach to studying ‘judicial activism’ in the Indian context in tracing its history and relevance since 1773. While discussing the varying roles of the judiciary, it delineates the boundaries of different organs of the State — judiciary, executive and legislature — and highlights the points where these boundaries have been breached, especially through judicial interventions in parliamentary affairs and their role in governance and policy. Including a fascinating range of sources such as legal cases, books, newspapers, periodicals, lectures, historical texts and records, the author presents the complex sides of the arguments persuasively, and contributes to new ways of understanding the functioning of the judiciary in India. This paperback edition, with a new Afterword, updates the debates around the raging questions facing the Indian judiciary. It will be of great interest to students and scholars of law, political science and history, as well as legal practitioners and the general reader.

Rights in Divided Societies

Author: Colin Harvey
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1847319807
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This collection examines the role and value of rights in divided and post-conflict societies, approaching the subject from a comparative and theoretical perspective. Societies emerging from violent conflict often opt for a bill of rights as part of a wider package of constitutional reform. Where conflict is fuelled by longstanding ethno-national divisions, these divisions are often addressed through group-differentiated rights. Recent constitutional settlements have highlighted the difficulties in drafting a bill of rights in divided/post-conflict societies, where the aim of promoting unity is frequently in tension with the need to accommodate difference. In such cases, a bill of rights might be a rallying point around which both minorities and the majority can articulate a common vision for a shared society. Conversely, a bill of rights might provide merely another venue in which to play out familiar conflicts, further dividing an already divided society. The central questions that animate the collection are: (1) Can constitutional rights provide a basis for unity and a common 'human rights culture' in divided societies? If so, how? (2) To what extent should divided societies opt for a universalistic package of rights protections, or should the rights be tailored to the specific circumstances of a divided society, providing for special group-sensitive protections for minorities? (3) Is a divided society more or less likely to adopt a bill of rights? (4) How does the judiciary figure in the management or resolution of ethno-national conflict? (5) What are the general theoretical and philosophical issues at stake in a rights-based approach to the management or resolution of ethno-national divisions or other conflicts?

Constitutional Review in Europe

Author: Maartje de Visser
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1782252444
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Constitutions serve to delineate state powers and enshrine basic rights. Such matters are hardly uncontroversial, but perhaps even more controversial are the questions of who (should) uphold(s) the Constitution and how constitutional review is organised. These two questions are the subject of this book by Maartje de Visser, which offers a comprehensive, comparative analysis of how 11 representative European countries answer these questions, as well as a critical appraisal of the EU legal order in light of these national experiences. Where possible, the book endeavours to identify Europe's common and diverse constitutional traditions of constitutional review. The raison d'Ãatre, jurisdiction and composition of constitutional courts are explored and so too are core features of the constitutional adjudicatory process. Yet, this book also deliberately draws attention to the role of non-judicial actors in upholding the Constitution, as well as the complex interplay amongst constitutional courts and other actors at the national and European level. The Member States featured are: Belgium, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Hungary, the Netherlands, Spain, Poland, and the United Kingdom. This book is intended for practitioners, academics and students with an interest in (European) constitutional law.

Constitutionalism in Asia

Author: Wen-Chen Chang
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1849469857
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book of text, cases and materials from Asia is designed for scholars and students of constitutional law and comparative constitutional law. The book is divided into 11 chapters, arranged thematically around key ideas and controversies, enabling the reader to work through the major facets of constitutionalism in the region. The book begins with a lengthy introduction that critically examines the study of constitutional orders in 'Asia', highlighting the histories, colonial influences, and cultural particularities extant in the region. This chapter serves both as a provisional orientation towards the major constitutional developments seen in Asia ? both unique and shared with other regions ? and as a guide to the controversies encountered in the study of constitutional law in Asia. Each of the following chapters is framed by an introductory essay setting out the issues and succinctly highlighting critical perspectives and themes. The approach is one of 'challenge and response', whereby questions of constitutional importance are posed and the reader is then led, by engaging with primary and secondary materials, through the way the various Asian states respond to these questions and challenges. Chapter segments are accompanied by notes, comments and questions to facilitate critical and comparative analysis, as well as recommendations for further reading.The book presents a representative range of Asian materials from jurisdictions including: Bangladesh, China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, South Korea, Sri Lanka , Taiwan, Timor-Leste and the 10 ASEAN states.

The Judicial Branch

Author: Kermit L. Hall
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 9780195309171
Format: PDF, ePub
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Presents a collection of essays examining the American judiciary, including such topics as judicial review and interpretation, judicial activism, the judiciary and the political process, and selecting Supreme Court justices.