Trade and Human Health and Safety

Author: George A. Bermann
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139448633
Format: PDF
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First published in 2006, this book gathers papers from distinguished experts discussing how health-based trade-restrictive measures have fared in WTO case law. With an analysis of applicable primary law (GATT, TBT, and SPS) and all case law in the area of trade and health, this book offers a comprehensive discussion on the standards established for the regulation of public health and safety issues. Experts in the field answer two important questions: how can a country which is a member of the WTO define its policy on health issues; and what are the WTO constraints on the exercise of health policy, if any? The various contributions in this volume aim to demonstrate how the world trading regime has come of age and accepted that trade liberalization cannot take place at the expense of nationally defined social values.

Uranium Mining in Virginia Scientific Technical Environmental Human Health and Safety and Regulatory Aspects of Uranium Mining and Processing in Virginia

Author: Committee on Uranium Mining in Virginia
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309220882
Format: PDF, Docs
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Uranium mining in the Commonwealth of Virginia has been prohibited since 1982 by a state moratorium, although approval for restricted uranium exploration in the state was granted in 2007. Uranium Mining in Virginia examines the scientific, technical, environmental, human health and safety, and regulatory aspects of uranium mining, milling, and processing as they relate to the Commonwealth of Virginia for the purpose of assisting the Commonwealth to determine whether uranium mining, milling, and processing can be undertaken in a manner that safeguards the environment, natural and historic resources, agricultural lands, and the health and well-being of its citizens. According to this report, if Virginia lifts its moratorium, there are "steep hurdles to be surmounted" before mining and processing could take place within a regulatory setting that appropriately protects workers, the public, and the environment, especially given that the state has no experience regulating mining and processing of the radioactive element. The authoring committee was not asked to recommend whether uranium mining should be permitted, or to consider the potential benefits to the state were uranium mining to be pursued. It also was not asked to compare the relative risks of uranium mining to the mining of other fuels such as coal. This book will be of interest to decision makers at the state and local level, the energy industry, and concerned citizens.

Trade and Public Health

Author: Benn McGrady
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139499505
Format: PDF
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Non-communicable diseases, associated with risk factors such as tobacco consumption, poor diet and alcohol use, represent a growing health burden around the world. The seriousness of non-communicable diseases is reflected in the adoption of international instruments such as the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; the WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; and the WHO Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. In line with these instruments, states are beginning to use measures such as taxes, restrictions on marketing, product regulation and labeling measures for public health purposes. This book examines the extent to which the law of the World Trade Organization restricts domestic implementation of these types of measures. The relationship between international health instruments and the WTO Agreement is examined, as are the WTO covered agreements themselves.

Food Fortification

Author: Mark Lawrence
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191663409
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Food Fortification: The evidence, ethics, and politics of adding nutrients to food critically analyses mandatory food fortification as a technology for protecting and promoting public health. Increasing numbers of foods fortified with novel amounts and combinations of nutrients are being introduced into the food supplies of countries around the world to raise populations' nutrient intakes. It is a technology that is becoming more widely used to tackle a variety of public health problems such as micronutrient malnutrition. Food fortification policies and programs are controversial. There are disputes over the ethics of food fortification as everyone who consumes fortified foods will be exposed to raised levels of nutrients irrespective of whether they will gain any benefit and often without their knowledge. There are also contested views about the evidence that is available to support such activities. This book discusses mandatory food fortification as an intervention to protect and promote public health through presenting a synthesis of the findings from research investigations into three topical case studies of mandatory food fortification: Universal salt iodisation to help prevent iodine deficiency disorders; mandatory flour fortification with folic acid to help prevent neural tube defects; and mandatory milk fortification with vitamin D to help prevent vitamin D deficiency. Each case study is assessed for its public health benefits, risks and ethical considerations.

Balancing between Trade and Risk

Author: Marjolein B. A. van Asselt
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136272569
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The trade aspects of risk and the risk aspects of trade deserve more systematic and genuine interdisciplinary attention if we are to really understand the global, international and supranational dimensions of risk regulation. This book brings together legal and social science research on risk regulation from across the world to explore risk regulation in a trade context. The interdisciplinary collaboration provided in this book is needed to address the trade versus risk balancing act both in empirical and theoretical terms. Although it is obvious that legal, social, cultural and political matters interfere with risk regulation, analyses in which these interferences are adequately considered are lacking. In one way or another, all chapters in this book address the issue of scientific uncertainty, the governance arrangements around expertise or both. Issues such as transparency, trust, legitimacy and precaution also become particularly important given the political, multi-actor and multi-level governance characteristics of the balancing act between trade and risk regulation. This book highlights and examines these concerns, going on to provide a critical assessment of the EU regulation of trade and risk both from external and internal perspectives. This book’s exploration of the balancing act between trade and risk regulation will be increasingly important to students of law and social sciences as they move to a shared, interdisciplinary understanding.

Human Resource Management and Occupational Health and Safety

Author: Carol Boyd
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134502079
Format: PDF
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Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) is a complex area which interacts widely with a broader spectrum of business interests and concerns. To date OHS has been confined to the periphery of Human Resource Management (HRM), where its role, influence and importance have been overlooked. This text sets out to reposition OHS in HRM and business agendas. This book unravels the complex range of factors affecting OHS policy, practice and outcomes. These factors are then placed into context within the international airline, call centre and nuclear power industries. The author presents a wide range of primary and secondary research in order to offer an accessible framework for OHS in contemporary occupational settings. This book will be essential reading for students, practitioners and professional academic audiences who seek a broader understanding of the relationship and interaction between HRM principles, policies and practices and OHS.

Mandated Science Science and Scientists in the Making of Standards

Author: L. Salter
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400927118
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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For a long time I would not eat strawberries. In 1977, a scandal broke about a testing laboratory having falsified the data that was used to register a large number of pesticides. The Canadian government, along with several others, began the process of re-evaluating both the procedures for testing and these specific chemicals. One chemical proved particularly controversial, the commonly-used pesticide named captan. In light of the controversy, which was manifest in a conflict between two government departments, in 1981, the Canadian government chose to appoint a special panel of experts to advise them. I was a member of this expert committee. The experience on the captan committee did little to reassure me, either about captan or about the way that decisions had been made about many pesticides in widespread use. Although it could not be demonstrated that captan was dangerous to people in the amounts to which they would likely be exposed, the animal studies provided the basis for concern. Prudence required at the very least that consumers take the precaution of washing their fruit, for captan is widely used on apples, cherries and berry fruits. Captan residues wash off apples relatively easily; they are less easily removed from berry fruits, such as straw berries.

Taking Trade to the Streets

Author: Susan Ariel Aaronson
Publisher: University of Michigan Press
ISBN: 9780472088676
Format: PDF, Docs
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DIVTraces the history of civil society involvement in the international trade debate /div

Food Safety Issues in the Developing World

Author: Laurian Unnevehr
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 9780821347706
Format: PDF, Docs
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Food safety is receiving more attention worldwide with the rising incidence of foodborne disease, concern over new potential hazards, and growth in agricultural trade. Investments to improve food safety in developing countries can reduce the burden of disease and remove the barriers to fresh food product exports, providing another source of income for the rural sector. International disputes over sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) measures influence the ability of developing countries to compete in export markets. These countries need to evaluate their interest in the SPS agreement under the World Trade Organisation (WTO); participate more fully in international agencies responsible for harmonisation; develop the capacity to assess equivalence for process standards, which are increasingly used for fresh food products; and resist the imposition of inappropriate standards.