Transformation Geometry

Author: George E. Martin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461256801
Format: PDF, Docs
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Transformation Geometry: An Introduction to Symmetry offers a modern approach to Euclidean Geometry. This study of the automorphism groups of the plane and space gives the classical concrete examples that serve as a meaningful preparation for the standard undergraduate course in abstract algebra. The detailed development of the isometries of the plane is based on only the most elementary geometry and is appropriate for graduate courses for secondary teachers.

Linear Algebra Through Geometry

Author: Thomas Banchoff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461243904
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book introduces the concepts of linear algebra through the careful study of two and three-dimensional Euclidean geometry. This approach makes it possible to start with vectors, linear transformations, and matrices in the context of familiar plane geometry and to move directly to topics such as dot products, determinants, eigenvalues, and quadratic forms. The later chapters deal with n-dimensional Euclidean space and other finite-dimensional vector space.

Continuous Symmetry

Author: William H. Barker
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821839004
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The fundamental idea of geometry is that of symmetry. With that principle as the starting point, Barker and Howe begin an insightful and rewarding study of Euclidean geometry. The primary focus of the book is on transformations of the plane. The transformational point of view provides both a path for deeper understanding of traditional synthetic geometry and tools for providing proofs that spring from a consistent point of view. As a result, proofs become more comprehensible, as techniques can be used and reused in similar settings. The approach to the material is very concrete, with complete explanations of all the important ideas, including foundational background. The discussions of the nine-point circle and wallpaper groups are particular examples of how the strength of the transformational point of view and the care of the authors' exposition combine to give a remarkable presentation of topics in geometry. This text is for a one-semester undergraduate course on geometry. It is richly illustrated and contains hundreds of exercises.

Transformation Groups for Beginners

Author: Sergeĭ Vasilʹevich Duzhin
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821836439
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book is intended for undergraduate students and all those interested in mathematics. Its goal is to give an easy introduction to the concept of a transformation group using examples from different areas of mathematics. The warm-up of the first two chapters includes a discussion of algebraic operations on points in the plane, and of Euclidean plane movements. Then the notions of a transformation group and of an abstract group are introduced. Group actions, orbits, and invariants constitute the subject of the next chapter. The book concludes with an elementary exposition of the basic ideas of Sophus Lie about symmetries of differential equations. The book contains plenty of figures, as well as many exercises with hints and solutions, which help the reader to master the material.

Transformational Plane Geometry

Author: Ronald N. Umble
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482234718
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Designed for a one-semester course at the junior undergraduate level, Transformational Plane Geometry takes a hands-on, interactive approach to teaching plane geometry. The book is self-contained, defining basic concepts from linear and abstract algebra gradually as needed. The text adheres to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and the Common Core State Standards Initiative Standards for Mathematical Practice. Future teachers will acquire the skills needed to effectively apply these standards in their classrooms. Following Felix Klein’s Erlangen Program, the book provides students in pure mathematics and students in teacher training programs with a concrete visual alternative to Euclid’s purely axiomatic approach to plane geometry. It enables geometrical visualization in three ways: Key concepts are motivated with exploratory activities using software specifically designed for performing geometrical constructions, such as Geometer’s Sketchpad. Each concept is introduced synthetically (without coordinates) and analytically (with coordinates). Exercises include numerous geometric constructions that use a reflecting instrument, such as a MIRA. After reviewing the essential principles of classical Euclidean geometry, the book covers general transformations of the plane with particular attention to translations, rotations, reflections, stretches, and their compositions. The authors apply these transformations to study congruence, similarity, and symmetry of plane figures and to classify the isometries and similarities of the plane.

Geometry and Symmetry

Author: Paul B. Yale
Publisher: Courier Corporation
ISBN: 0486169324
Format: PDF, ePub
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DIVIntroduction to the geometry of euclidean, affine and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. Many exercises, extensive bibliography. Advanced undergraduate level. /div

Symmetry

Author: R. McWeeny
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483226247
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Symmetry: An Introduction to Group Theory and its Application is an eight-chapter text that covers the fundamental bases, the development of the theoretical and experimental aspects of the group theory. Chapter 1 deals with the elementary concepts and definitions, while Chapter 2 provides the necessary theory of vector spaces. Chapters 3 and 4 are devoted to an opportunity of actually working with groups and representations until the ideas already introduced are fully assimilated. Chapter 5 looks into the more formal theory of irreducible representations, while Chapter 6 is concerned largely with quadratic forms, illustrated by applications to crystal properties and to molecular vibrations. Chapter 7 surveys the symmetry properties of functions, with special emphasis on the eigenvalue equation in quantum mechanics. Chapter 8 covers more advanced applications, including the detailed analysis of tensor properties and tensor operators. This book is of great value to mathematicians, and math teachers and students.

From Groups to Geometry and Back

Author: Vaughn Climenhaga
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470434792
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Groups arise naturally as symmetries of geometric objects, and so groups can be used to understand geometry and topology. Conversely, one can study abstract groups by using geometric techniques and ultimately by treating groups themselves as geometric objects. This book explores these connections between group theory and geometry, introducing some of the main ideas of transformation groups, algebraic topology, and geometric group theory. The first half of the book introduces basic notions of group theory and studies symmetry groups in various geometries, including Euclidean, projective, and hyperbolic. The classification of Euclidean isometries leads to results on regular polyhedra and polytopes; the study of symmetry groups using matrices leads to Lie groups and Lie algebras. The second half of the book explores ideas from algebraic topology and geometric group theory. The fundamental group appears as yet another group associated to a geometric object and turns out to be a symmetry group using covering spaces and deck transformations. In the other direction, Cayley graphs, planar models, and fundamental domains appear as geometric objects associated to groups. The final chapter discusses groups themselves as geometric objects, including a gentle introduction to Gromov's theorem on polynomial growth and Grigorchuk's example of intermediate growth. The book is accessible to undergraduate students (and anyone else) with a background in calculus, linear algebra, and basic real analysis, including topological notions of convergence and connectedness. This book is a result of the MASS course in algebra at Penn State University in the fall semester of 2009.

Algebra and Geometry

Author: Alan F. Beardon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139443494
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Describing two cornerstones of mathematics, this basic textbook presents a unified approach to algebra and geometry. It covers the ideas of complex numbers, scalar and vector products, determinants, linear algebra, group theory, permutation groups, symmetry groups and aspects of geometry including groups of isometries, rotations, and spherical geometry. The book emphasises the interactions between topics, and each topic is constantly illustrated by using it to describe and discuss the others. Many ideas are developed gradually, with each aspect presented at a time when its importance becomes clearer. To aid in this, the text is divided into short chapters, each with exercises at the end. The related website features an HTML version of the book, extra text at higher and lower levels, and more exercises and examples. It also links to an electronic maths thesaurus, giving definitions, examples and links both to the book and to external sources.