Transformation Geometry

Author: George E. Martin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461256801
Format: PDF, Mobi

Transformation Geometry: An Introduction to Symmetry offers a modern approach to Euclidean Geometry. This study of the automorphism groups of the plane and space gives the classical concrete examples that serve as a meaningful preparation for the standard undergraduate course in abstract algebra. The detailed development of the isometries of the plane is based on only the most elementary geometry and is appropriate for graduate courses for secondary teachers.

Geometric Constructions

Author: George E. Martin
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461206294
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs

Geometric constructions have been a popular part of mathematics throughout history. The first chapter here is informal and starts from scratch, introducing all the geometric constructions from high school that have been forgotten or were never learned. The second chapter formalises Plato's game, and examines problems from antiquity such as the impossibility of trisecting an arbitrary angle. After that, variations on Plato's theme are explored: using only a ruler, a compass, toothpicks, a ruler and dividers, a marked rule, or a tomahawk, ending in a chapter on geometric constructions by paperfolding. The author writes in a charming style and nicely intersperses history and philosophy within the mathematics, teaching a little geometry and a little algebra along the way. This is as much an algebra book as it is a geometry book, yet since all the algebra and geometry needed is developed within the text, very little mathematical background is required. This text has been class tested for several semesters with a master's level class for secondary teachers.

Linear Algebra Through Geometry

Author: Thomas Banchoff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461243904
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi

This book introduces the concepts of linear algebra through the careful study of two and three-dimensional Euclidean geometry. This approach makes it possible to start with vectors, linear transformations, and matrices in the context of familiar plane geometry and to move directly to topics such as dot products, determinants, eigenvalues, and quadratic forms. The later chapters deal with n-dimensional Euclidean space and other finite-dimensional vector space.

Continuous Symmetry

Author: William H. Barker
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821839004
Format: PDF, Kindle

The fundamental idea of geometry is that of symmetry. With that principle as the starting point, Barker and Howe begin an insightful and rewarding study of Euclidean geometry. The primary focus of the book is on transformations of the plane. The transformational point of view provides both a path for deeper understanding of traditional synthetic geometry and tools for providing proofs that spring from a consistent point of view. As a result, proofs become more comprehensible, as techniques can be used and reused in similar settings. The approach to the material is very concrete, with complete explanations of all the important ideas, including foundational background. The discussions of the nine-point circle and wallpaper groups are particular examples of how the strength of the transformational point of view and the care of the authors' exposition combine to give a remarkable presentation of topics in geometry. This text is for a one-semester undergraduate course on geometry. It is richly illustrated and contains hundreds of exercises.

Transformation geometry

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Format: PDF, Mobi

Topology of surfaces knots and manifolds

Author: Stephan C. Carlson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Inc
ISBN:
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs

Master the basic ideas of the topology of manifolds TOPOLOGY OF SURFACES, KNOTS, AND MANIFOLDS offers an intuition-based and example-driven approach to the basic ideas and problems involving manifolds, particularly one- and two-dimensional manifolds. A blend of examples and exercises leads the reader to anticipate general definitions and theorems concerning curves, surfaces, knots, and links--the objects of interest in the appealing set of mathematical ideas known as "rubber sheet geometry." The result is a text that is accessible to a broad range of undergraduate students, yet will provides solid coverage of the mathematics underlying these topics. Here are some of the features that make Carlson's approach work: A student-friendly writing style provides a clear exposition of concepts.mathematical results are presented accurately and main definitions, theorems, and remarks are clearly highlighted for easy reference.Carefully selected exercises, some of which require hands-on work on computer-aided visualization, reinforce the understanding of concepts or further develop ideas.Extensive use of illustrations helps the students develop an intuitive understanding of the material.Frequent historical references chronicle the development of the subject and highlight connections between topology and other areas of mathematics.Chapter summary sections offer a review of each chapter's topics and a transitional look forward to the next chapter.

Algebra and Geometry

Author: Alan F. Beardon
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139443494
Format: PDF, Mobi

Describing two cornerstones of mathematics, this basic textbook presents a unified approach to algebra and geometry. It covers the ideas of complex numbers, scalar and vector products, determinants, linear algebra, group theory, permutation groups, symmetry groups and aspects of geometry including groups of isometries, rotations, and spherical geometry. The book emphasises the interactions between topics, and each topic is constantly illustrated by using it to describe and discuss the others. Many ideas are developed gradually, with each aspect presented at a time when its importance becomes clearer. To aid in this, the text is divided into short chapters, each with exercises at the end. The related website features an HTML version of the book, extra text at higher and lower levels, and more exercises and examples. It also links to an electronic maths thesaurus, giving definitions, examples and links both to the book and to external sources.

Transformational Plane Geometry

Author: Ronald N. Umble
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482234718
Format: PDF, Mobi

Designed for a one-semester course at the junior undergraduate level, Transformational Plane Geometry takes a hands-on, interactive approach to teaching plane geometry. The book is self-contained, defining basic concepts from linear and abstract algebra gradually as needed. The text adheres to the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Principles and Standards for School Mathematics and the Common Core State Standards Initiative Standards for Mathematical Practice. Future teachers will acquire the skills needed to effectively apply these standards in their classrooms. Following Felix Klein’s Erlangen Program, the book provides students in pure mathematics and students in teacher training programs with a concrete visual alternative to Euclid’s purely axiomatic approach to plane geometry. It enables geometrical visualization in three ways: Key concepts are motivated with exploratory activities using software specifically designed for performing geometrical constructions, such as Geometer’s Sketchpad. Each concept is introduced synthetically (without coordinates) and analytically (with coordinates). Exercises include numerous geometric constructions that use a reflecting instrument, such as a MIRA. After reviewing the essential principles of classical Euclidean geometry, the book covers general transformations of the plane with particular attention to translations, rotations, reflections, stretches, and their compositions. The authors apply these transformations to study congruence, similarity, and symmetry of plane figures and to classify the isometries and similarities of the plane.

From Groups to Geometry and Back

Author: Vaughn Climenhaga
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470434792
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi

Groups arise naturally as symmetries of geometric objects, and so groups can be used to understand geometry and topology. Conversely, one can study abstract groups by using geometric techniques and ultimately by treating groups themselves as geometric objects. This book explores these connections between group theory and geometry, introducing some of the main ideas of transformation groups, algebraic topology, and geometric group theory. The first half of the book introduces basic notions of group theory and studies symmetry groups in various geometries, including Euclidean, projective, and hyperbolic. The classification of Euclidean isometries leads to results on regular polyhedra and polytopes; the study of symmetry groups using matrices leads to Lie groups and Lie algebras. The second half of the book explores ideas from algebraic topology and geometric group theory. The fundamental group appears as yet another group associated to a geometric object and turns out to be a symmetry group using covering spaces and deck transformations. In the other direction, Cayley graphs, planar models, and fundamental domains appear as geometric objects associated to groups. The final chapter discusses groups themselves as geometric objects, including a gentle introduction to Gromov's theorem on polynomial growth and Grigorchuk's example of intermediate growth. The book is accessible to undergraduate students (and anyone else) with a background in calculus, linear algebra, and basic real analysis, including topological notions of convergence and connectedness. This book is a result of the MASS course in algebra at Penn State University in the fall semester of 2009.

Geometry Euclid and Beyond

Author: Robin Hartshorne
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387226761
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi

This book offers a unique opportunity to understand the essence of one of the great thinkers of western civilization. A guided reading of Euclid's Elements leads to a critical discussion and rigorous modern treatment of Euclid's geometry and its more recent descendants, with complete proofs. Topics include the introduction of coordinates, the theory of area, history of the parallel postulate, the various non-Euclidean geometries, and the regular and semi-regular polyhedra.