Tropical Meteorology

Author: T.N. Krishnamurti
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461474094
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book is designed as an introductory course in Tropical Meteorology for the graduate or advanced level undergraduate student. The material within can be covered in a one-semester course program. The text starts from the global scale-view of the Tropics, addressing the zonally symmetric and asymmetric features of the tropical circulation. It then goes on to progressively smaller spatial and time scales – from the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Asian Monsoon, down to tropical waves, hurricanes, sea breezes, and tropical squall lines. The emphasis in most chapters is on the observational aspects of the phenomenon in question, the theories regarding its nature and maintenance, and the approaches to its numerical modeling. The concept of scale interactions is also presented as a way of gaining insight into the generation and redistribution of energy for the maintenance of oscillations of a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

Lectures in Meteorology

Author: Nicole Mölders
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319021443
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Lectures in Meteorology is a comprehensive reference book for meteorologists and environmental scientists to look up material on the thermodynamics, dynamics and chemistry of the troposphere. The lectures demonstrate how to derive/develop equations – an essential tool for model development. All chapters present applications of the material including numerical models. The lectures are written in modular form, i.e. they can be used at the undergraduate level for classes covered by the chapters or at the graduate level as a comprehensive, intensive course. The student/instructor can address chapters 2 (thermodynamics) and 4 (radiation) in any order. They can also switch the order of chapter 5 (chemistry) and 6 (dynamics). Chapter 7 (climatology and climate) requires an understanding of all chapters. Chapter 3 (cloud physics) needs basics from chapter 2 to understand the cloud microphysical processes. The governing conservation equations for trace constituents, dry air, water substances, total mass, energy, entropy and momentum are presented, including simplifications and their application in models. A brief introduction to atmospheric boundary layer processes is presented as well. Basic principles of climatology discussed include analysis methods, atmospheric waves and their analytical solutions, tropical and extra-tropical cyclones, classical and non-classical mesoscale circulations, and the global circulation. The atmospheric chemistry section encompasses photolytic and gas-phase processes, aqueous chemistry, aerosol processes, fundamentals of biogeochemical cycles and the ozone layer. Solar and terrestrial radiation; major absorber; radiation balance; radiative equilibrium; radiative-convective equilibrium; and basics of molecular, aerosol and cloud adsorption and scattering and their use in remote sensing are also presented.

An Introduction to the Meteorology and Climate of the Tropics

Author: J. F. P. Galvin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119086248
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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What do we mean by the tropics? The weather and the climates it produces across the tropical zone are significantly different from those experienced by the people living in higher latitudes, so forecasters across Europe and much of North America are unfamiliar with its effects. In this book, Jim Galvin demystifies the topic in this zone that is increasingly of interest to those studying weather and climate. This book was written for weather forecasters, meteorology, environmental science and geography students as an introductory guide. It builds on the experience of the author, his professional experience in the World Area Forecast Centre at the Met Office, Exeter, using studies into the weather and climate seen within the tropical air mass conducted over many years. Its unique approach presents a practical approach to tropical weather studies, drawing on both academic and practical knowledge, covering air mass dynamics, seasonal changes, moist and dry weather, climate variability and human health in chapters and appendices that build up the overall picture, summarising our current state of knowledge. As an overview, it covers the broad range of effects connected with climate and weather in a straightforward way and is clearly illustrated throughout.

Tropical Climatology

Author: Glenn R. McGregor
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780471966104
Format: PDF
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Tropical Climatology Second Edition Glenn R. McGregor, The University of Birmingham, UK Simon Nieuwolt (deceased) Formerly Adjunct Professor, University of Guelph, Canada Climatology, the scientific study of climate, is not only concerned with explaining why a location's or region's climate is like it is but also with describing the nature and availability of the climate resource for a wide range of human activities. This subject is of great relevance to the tropics as climate in many ways controls the lives and economic activities of the approximately 2400 million people living in tropical regions. Tropical climates also have effects that reach far beyond the limits of the regions where they actually prevail: the global general circulation is largely driven by the export of considerable amounts of heat energy from tropical to extratropical latitudes: a large part of all atmospheric water content originates from the tropics, and intermittent tropical phenomena, like El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO), not only influence the climates over extensive tropical areas but many parts of the extratropics. The climate sensitivity of populations and economic production in the tropics also makes these regions especially vulnerable to any negative impacts arising from human-induced climate change. Tropical Climatology aims to provide a geographical viewpoint on the physical processes in the tropical atmosphere: to offer explanations of how a location's climate is a product of these processes and to highlight the implications of tropical atmospheric behaviour and climate change for those living in the tropics. This is the second edition of the book and reflects the substantial developments in the field of tropical climatology which have taken place over the two decades since the publication of the first edition. New and updated material has been included on the nature of the general tropical circulation, the monsoons, the quasi-biennial oscillation, the 40-50 day tropical circulation, the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon and its climatic impacts, tropical disturbances, the characteristics of regional tropical climates and climate change in the tropics. The readership of the book remains essentially the same as that for which the first edition was intended; second to third year students in geography and the environmental sciences who have some background in climatology. The updated reference list will, however, provide an entry point for non-specialist postgraduates into the field of tropical climatology.

Fundamentals of Boundary Layer Meteorology

Author: Xuhui Lee
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319608533
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This textbook introduces a set of fundamental equations that govern the conservation of mass (dry air, water vapor, trace gas), momentum and energy in the lower atmosphere. Simplifications of each of these equations are made in the context of boundary-layer processes. Extended from these equations the author then discusses a key set of issues, including (1) turbulence generation and destruction, (2) force balances in various portions of the lower atmosphere, (3) canopy flow, (4) tracer diffusion and footprint theory, (5) principles of flux measurement and interpretation, (6) models for land evaporation, (7) models for surface temperature response to land use change, and (8) boundary layer budget calculations for heat, water vapor and carbon dioxide. Problem sets are supplied at the end of each chapter to reinforce the concepts and theory presented in the main text. This volume offers the accumulation of insights gained by the author during his academic career as a researcher and teacher in the field of boundary-layer meteorology.

An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques

Author: T. N. Krishnamurti
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1351467050
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques is unique in the meteorological field as it presents for the first time theories and software of complex dynamical and physical processes required for numerical modeling. It was first prepared as a manual for the training of the World Meteorological Organization's programs at a similar level. This new book updates these exercises and also includes the latest data sets. This book covers important aspects of numerical weather prediction techniques required at an introductory level. These techniques, ranging from simple one-dimensional space derivative to complex numerical models, are first described in theory and for most cases supported by fully tested computational software. The text discusses the fundamental physical parameterizations needed in numerical weather models, such as cumulus convection, radiative transfers, and surface energy fluxes calculations. The book gives the user all the necessary elements to build a numerical model. An Introduction to Numerical Weather Prediction Techniques is rich in illustrations, especially tables showing outputs from each individual algorithm presented. Selected figures using actual meteorological data are also used. This book is primarily intended for senior-level undergraduates and first-year graduate students in meteorology. It is also excellent for individual scientists who wish to use the book for self-study. Scientists dealing with geophysical data analysis or predictive models will find this book filled with useful techniques and data-processing algorithms.

Applied Hydrometeorology

Author: Pukhraj Rakhecha
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402098448
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Water is vital for life. Since the dawn of civilization, much effort has been made to harness sources of fresh water. Recent years have raised global awareness of the need for increasing demand of water worldwide, largely because of growing population, rising standard of living, higher demand for energy, and greater appreciation for environmental quality. As an example, the world population has increased threefold in the past five decades. In order to meet the rising water demand, water resources are being developed by building large dams, reservoirs, barrages and weirs across rivers worldwide. The guiding principle for water resources development has been to ensure adequate supply of water for agriculture, domestic use (including fine drinking water), waste disposal, industries, and energy production, with due attention to maintain the ecosystem functions. This development, however, depends on a holistic, cooperative and scientific approach. The basic inputs in the assessment of water resources for a given region are from hydrological data and the subject of hydrology forms the core in achieving sustainable development of water resources. Barring a few exceptions, hydrological data for most river basins are sparse and therefore it is difficult to comprehensively assess their water resources. The major source of water is rainfall which occurs as a result of condensation of atmospheric moisture governed by the science of meteorology.

Stratosphere Troposphere Interactions

Author: K. Mohanakumar
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402082177
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Stratospheric processes play a signi?cant role in regulating the weather and c- mate of the Earth system. Solar radiation, which is the primary source of energy for the tropospheric weather systems, is absorbed by ozone when it passes through the stratosphere, thereby modulating the solar-forcing energy reaching into the t- posphere. The concentrations of the radiatively sensitive greenhouse gases present in the lower atmosphere, such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and ozone, control the radiation balance of the atmosphere by the two-way interaction between the stratosphere and troposphere. The stratosphere is the transition region which interacts with the weather s- tems in the lower atmosphere and the richly ionized upper atmosphere. Therefore, this part of the atmosphere provides a long list of challenging scienti?c problems of basic nature involving its thermal structure, energetics, composition, dynamics, chemistry, and modeling. The lower stratosphere is very much linked dynamically, radiatively,and chemically with the upper troposphere,even though the temperature characteristics of these regions are different. The stratosphere is a region of high stability, rich in ozone and poor in water - por and temperature increases with altitude. The lower stratospheric ozone absorbs the harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun and protects life on the Earth. On the other hand, the troposphere has high concentrations of water vapor, is low in ozone, and temperature decreases with altitude. The convective activity is more in the troposphere than in the stratosphere.

Synoptic Dynamic Meteorology and Weather Analysis and Forecasting

Author: Lance Bosart
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0933876688
Format: PDF
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This long-anticipated monograph honoring scientist and teacher Fred Sanders includes 16 articles by various authors as well as dozens of unique photographs evoking Fred's character and the vitality of the scientific community he helped develop through his work. Editors Lance F. Bosart (University at Albany/SUNY) and Howard B. Bluestein (University of Oklahoma at Norman) have brought together contributions from luminary authors-including Kerry Emanuel, Robert Burpee, Edward Kessler, and Louis Uccellini-to honor Fred's work in the fields of forecasting, weather analysis, synoptic meteorology, and climatology. The result is a significant volume of work that represents a lasting record of Fred Sanders' influence on atmospheric science and legacy of teaching.

The Climatology of Air Mass and Frontal Extreme Precipitation

Author: Ewa Łupikasza
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319314785
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Based on a data series of more than 50 years, this book discusses spatial and seasonal variability in air-mass and frontal extreme precipitation frequency and as well as the relationship between their occurrence and atmospheric circulation. The climatology of air-mass and frontal extreme precipitation is presented for the first time on a European scale. Since there is no robust, automatic method of locating atmospheric fronts, this challenging task has to be performed manually. Moreover, there is limited availability of the complex sub-daily data that is necessary to recognize the dynamic of meteorological fronts. The results show a clear regional and seasonal variety in the relationship between extreme precipitation occurrence and atmospheric circulation depending on precipitation origin. The probability of air-mass and frontal precipitation occurrence provides crucial information for studies in predictability and modeling. This book is intended for students, specialists in the field of climatology and climate change, climate process modelers, and other experts for whom extreme precipitation is important.x