Understanding and Mitigating Ageing in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: Philip G Tipping
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845699955
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Plant life management (PLiM) is a methodology focussed on the safety-first management of nuclear power plants over their entire lifetime. It incorporates and builds upon the usual periodic safety reviews and licence renewals as part of an overall framework designed to assist plant operators and regulators in assessing the operating conditions of a nuclear power plant, and establishing the technical and economic requirements for safe, long-term operation. Understanding and mitigating ageing in nuclear power plants critically reviews the fundamental ageing-degradation mechanisms of materials used in nuclear power plant structures, systems and components (SSC), along with their relevant analysis and mitigation paths, as well as reactor-type specific PLiM practices. Obsolescence and other less obvious ageing-related aspects in nuclear power plant operation are also examined in depth. Part one introduces the reader to the role of nuclear power in the global energy mix, and the importance and relevance of plant life management for the safety regulation and economics of nuclear power plants. Key ageing degradation mechanisms and their effects in nuclear power plant systems, structures and components are reviewed in part two, along with routes taken to characterise and analyse the ageing of materials and to mitigate or eliminate ageing degradation effects. Part three reviews analysis, monitoring and modelling techniques applicable to the study of nuclear power plant materials, as well as the application of advanced systems, structures and components in nuclear power plants. Finally, Part IV reviews the particular ageing degradation issues, plant designs, and application of plant life management (PLiM) practices in a range of commercial nuclear reactor types. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Understanding and mitigating ageing in nuclear power plants is a standard reference for all nuclear plant designers, operators, and nuclear safety and materials professionals and researchers. Introduces the reader to the role of nuclear power in the global energy mix Reviews the fundamental ageing-degradation mechanisms of materials used in nuclear power plant structures, systems and components (SSC) Examines topics including elimination of ageing effects, plant design, and the application of plant life management (PLiM) practices in a range of commercial nuclear reactor types

Probabilistic Safety Assessment for Optimum Nuclear Power Plant Life Management PLiM

Author: Gennadij V Arkadov
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857093991
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Probabilistic safety assessment methods are used to calculate nuclear power plant durability and resource lifetime. Successful calculation of the reliability and ageing of components is critical for forecasting safety and directing preventative maintenance, and Probabilistic safety assessment for optimum nuclear power plant life management provides a comprehensive review of the theory and application of these methods. Part one reviews probabilistic methods for predicting the reliability of equipment. Following an introduction to key terminology, concepts and definitions, formal-statistical and various physico–statistical approaches are discussed. Approaches based on the use of defect-free models are considered, along with those using binomial distribution and models based on the residual defectiveness of structural materials. The practical applications of probabilistic methods for strength reliability are subsequently explored in part two. Probabilistic methods for increasing the reliability and safety of nuclear power plant components are investigated, as are the use of such methods for optimising non-destructive tests, hydraulic tests, technical certification and planned-preventative maintenance. Finally, the book concludes with information on the use of probabilistic methods in ensuring leak tightness of nuclear power plant steam generator heat exchanger pipes. With its distinguished authors, Probabilistic safety assessment for optimum nuclear power plant life management is a valuable reference for all nuclear plant designers, operators, nuclear safety engineers and managers, as well as academics and researchers in this field. Discusses the theory and application of probabilistic safety assessment methods used to calculate nuclear power plant (NPP) durability and lifetime Reviews probabilistic methods in their application to NPP components and ageing pipelines for the forecasting of NPP resource lifetime and safety Addresses the key areas of probabilistic safety analysis, optimization of the operations through in-service inspection (ISI) utilising non-destructive testing, and maintenance, service and repair approaches

Power Plant Life Management and Performance Improvement

Author: John E Oakey
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857093800
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Coal- and gas-based power plants currently supply the largest proportion of the world’s power generation capacity, and are required to operate to increasingly stringent environmental standards. Higher temperature combustion is therefore being adopted to improve plant efficiency and to maintain net power output given the energy penalty that integration of advanced emissions control systems cause. However, such operating regimes also serve to intensify degradation mechanisms within power plant systems, potentially affecting their reliability and lifespan. Power plant life management and performance improvement critically reviews the fundamental degradation mechanisms that affect conventional power plant systems and components, as well as examining the operation and maintenance approaches and advanced plant rejuvenation and retrofit options that the industry are applying to ensure overall plant performance improvement and life management. Part one initially reviews plant operation issues, including fuel flexibility, condition monitoring and performance assessment. Parts two, three and four focus on coal boiler plant, gas turbine plant, and steam boiler and turbine plant respectively, reviewing environmental degradation mechanisms affecting plant components and their mitigation via advances in materials selection and life management approaches, such as repair, refurbishment and upgrade. Finally, part five reviews issues relevant to the performance management and improvement of advanced heat exchangers and power plant welds. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Power plant life management and performance improvement is an essential reference for power plant operators, industrial engineers and metallurgists, and researchers interested in this important field. Provides an overview of the improvements to plant efficiency in coal- and gas-based power plants Critically reviews the fundamental degradation mechanisms that affect conventional power plant systems and components, noting mitigation routes alongside monitoring and assessment methods Addresses plant operation issues including fuel flexibility, condition monitoring and performance assessment

Materials Ageing and Degradation in Light Water Reactors

Author: K L Murty
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857097458
Format: PDF, ePub
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Light water reactors (LWRs) are the predominant class of nuclear power reactors in operation today; however, ageing and degradation can influence both their performance and lifetime. Knowledge of these factors is therefore critical to safe, continuous operation. Materials ageing and degradation in light water reactors provides a comprehensive guide to prevalent deterioration mechanisms, and the approaches used to handle their effects. Part one introduces fundamental ageing issues and degradation mechanisms. Beginning with an overview of ageing and degradation issues in LWRs, the book goes on to discuss corrosion in pressurized water reactors and creep deformation of materials in LWRs. Part two then considers materials’ ageing and degradation in specific LWR components. Applications of zirconium alloys in LWRs are discussed, along with the ageing of electric cables. Materials management strategies for LWRs are then the focus of part three. Materials management strategies for pressurized water reactors and VVER reactors are considered before the book concludes with a discussion of materials-related problems faced by LWR operators and corresponding research needs. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Materials ageing and degradation in light water reactors is an authoritative review for anyone requiring an understanding of the performance and durability of this type of nuclear power plant, including plant operators and managers, nuclear metallurgists, governmental and regulatory safety bodies, and researchers, scientists and academics working in this area. Introduces the fundamental ageing issues and degradation mechanisms associated with this class of nuclear power reactors Considers materials ageing and degradation in specific light water reactor components, including properties, performance and inspection Chapters also focus on material management strategies

Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors

Author: Pascal Yvon
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081009127
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Operating at a high level of fuel efficiency, safety, proliferation-resistance, sustainability and cost, generation IV nuclear reactors promise enhanced features to an energy resource which is already seen as an outstanding source of reliable base load power. The performance and reliability of materials when subjected to the higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive higher temperature environments that will be found in generation IV nuclear reactors are essential areas of study, as key considerations for the successful development of generation IV reactors are suitable structural materials for both in-core and out-of-core applications. Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors explores the current state-of-the art in these areas. Part One reviews the materials, requirements and challenges in generation IV systems. Part Two presents the core materials with chapters on irradiation resistant austenitic steels, ODS/FM steels and refractory metals amongst others. Part Three looks at out-of-core materials. Structural Materials for Generation IV Nuclear Reactors is an essential reference text for professional scientists, engineers and postgraduate researchers involved in the development of generation IV nuclear reactors. Introduces the higher neutron doses and extremely corrosive higher temperature environments that will be found in generation IV nuclear reactors and implications for structural materials Contains chapters on the key core and out-of-core materials, from steels to advanced micro-laminates Written by an expert in that particular area

Membrane Reactors for Energy Applications and Basic Chemical Production

Author: Angelo Basile
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782422277
Format: PDF, Docs
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Membrane Reactors for Energy Applications and Basic Chemical Production presents a discussion of the increasing interest in membrane reactors that has emerged in recent years from both the scientific and industrial communities, in particular their usage for energy applications and basic chemical production. Part One of the text investigates membrane reactors for syngas and hydrogen production, while Part Two examines membrane reactors for other energy applications, including biodiesel and bioethanol production. The final section of the book reviews the use of membrane reactors in basic chemical production, including discussions of the use of MRs in ammonia production and the dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes. Provides comprehensive coverage of membrane reactors as presented by a world-renowned team of experts Includes discussions of the use of membrane reactors in ammonia production and the dehydrogenation of alkanes to alkenes Tackles the use of membrane reactors in syngas, hydrogen, and basic chemical production Keen focus placed on the industry, particularly in the use of membrane reactor technologies in energy

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites

Author: L van Velzen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1782422382
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Nuclear sites become contaminated with radionuclides due to accidents and activities carried out without due consideration for the environment. Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) released by industrial processes such as coal power production and fertilizer manufacture may also require clean-up. Environmental remediation and restoration aim to reduce exposure to radiation from contaminated soil or groundwater. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this area. Part 1 provides an introduction to the different types of contaminated site and their characteristics. Part 2 addresses environmental restoration frameworks and processes. Part 3 then reviews different remediation techniques and methods of waste disposal. Explores types and characteristics of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Provides an in depth guide to environmental restoration frameworks and processes including stakeholder involvement, risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis in the remediation and restoration of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Offers coverage of remediation techniques and waste disposal from electrokinetic remediation to in situ and ex situ bioremediation of radionuclides contaminated soils

Gasification for Synthetic Fuel Production

Author: R Luque
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 085709808X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Gasification involves the conversion of carbon sources without combustion to syngas, which can be used as a fuel itself or further processed to synthetic fuels. The technology provides a potentially more efficient means of energy generation than direct combustion. This book provides an overview of gasification science and engineering and the production of synthetic fuels by gasification from a variety of feedstocks. Part one introduces gasification, reviewing the scientific basis of the process and gasification engineering. Part two then addresses gasification and synthentic fuel production processes. Finally, chapters in part three outline the different applications of gasification, with chapters on the conversion of different types of feedstock. Examines the design of gasifiers, the preparation of feedstocks, and the economic, environmental and policy issues related to gasification Reviews gasification processes for liquid fuel production Outlines the different applications of gasification technology