Understanding Complex Ecosystem Dynamics

Author: William S. Yackinous
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128020636
Format: PDF, ePub
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Understanding Complex Ecosystem Dynamics: A Systems and Engineering Perspective takes a fresh, interdisciplinary perspective on complex system dynamics, beginning with a discussion of relevant systems and engineering skills and practices, including an explanation of the systems approach and its major elements. From this perspective, the author formulates an ecosystem dynamics functionality-based framework to guide ecological investigations. Next, because complex system theory (across many subject matter areas) is crucial to the work of this book, relevant network theory, nonlinear dynamics theory, cellular automata theory, and roughness (fractal) theory is covered in some detail. This material serves as an important resource as the book proceeds. In the context of all of the foregoing discussion and investigation, a view of the characteristics of ecological network dynamics is constructed. This view, in turn, is the basis for the central hypothesis of the book, i.e., ecological networks are ever-changing networks with propagation dynamics that are punctuated, local-to-global, and perhaps most importantly fractal. To analyze and fully test this hypothesis, an innovative ecological network dynamics model is defined, designed, and developed. The modeling approach, which seeks to emulate features of real-world ecological networks, does not make a priori assumptions about ecological network dynamics, but rather lets the dynamics develop as the model simulation runs. Model analysis results corroborate the central hypothesis. Additional important insights and principles are suggested by the model analysis results and by the other supporting investigations of this book – and can serve as a basis for going-forward complex system dynamics research, not only for ecological systems but for complex systems in general. Provides a fresh interdisciplinary perspective, offers a broad integrated development, and contains many new ideas Clearly explains the elements of the systems approach and applies them throughout the book Takes on the challenging and open issues of complex system network dynamics Develops and utilizes a new, innovative ecosystem dynamics modeling approach Contains over 135 graphic illustrations to help the reader visualize and understand important concepts

Engineering Hydrology for Natural Resources Engineers

Author: Ernest W. Tollner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118928725
Format: PDF, Docs
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This fully revised edition provides a modern overview of the intersection of hydrology, water quality, and water management at the rural-urban interface. The book explores the ecosystem services available in wetlands, natural channels and ponds/lakes. As in the first edition, Part I examines the hydrologic cycle by providing strategies for quantifying each component: rainfall (with NOAH 14), infiltration, evapotranspiration and runoff. Part II examines field and farm scale water quality with an introduction to erosion prediction and water quality. Part III provides a concise examination of water management on the field and farm scale, emphasizing channel design, field control structures, measurement structures, groundwater processes and irrigation principles. Part IV then concludes the text with a treatment of basin-scale processes. A comprehensive suite of software tools is available for download, consisting of Excel spreadsheets, with some public domain models such as HY-8 culvert design, and software with public domain readers such as Mathematica, Maple and TK solver.

Perspectives on the Future of Software Engineering

Author: Jürgen Münch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364237395X
Format: PDF, Docs
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The dependence on quality software in all areas of life is what makes software engineering a key discipline for today’s society. Thus, over the last few decades it has been increasingly recognized that it is particularly important to demonstrate the value of software engineering methods in real-world environments, a task which is the focus of empirical software engineering. One of the leading protagonists of this discipline worldwide is Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dieter Rombach, who dedicated his entire career to empirical software engineering. For his many important contributions to the field he has received numerous awards and recognitions, including the U.S. National Science Foundation’s Presidential Young Investigator Award and the Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. He is a Fellow of both the ACM and the IEEE Computer Society. This book, published in honor of his 60th birthday, is dedicated to Dieter Rombach and his contributions to software engineering in general, as well as to empirical software engineering in particular. This book presents invited contributions from a number of the most internationally renowned software engineering researchers like Victor Basili, Barry Boehm, Manfred Broy, Carlo Ghezzi, Michael Jackson, Leon Osterweil, and, of course, by Dieter Rombach himself. Several key experts from the Fraunhofer IESE, the institute founded and led by Dieter Rombach, also contributed to the book. The contributions summarize some of the most important trends in software engineering today and outline a vision for the future of the field. The book is structured into three main parts. The first part focuses on the classical foundations of software engineering, such as notations, architecture, and processes, while the second addresses empirical software engineering in particular as the core field of Dieter Rombach’s contributions. Finally, the third part discusses a broad vision for the future of software engineering.

Aging and Health A Systems Biology Perspective

Author: A.I. Yashin
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3318027308
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Aging is a major risk factor for chronic diseases, which in turn can provide information about the aging of a biological system. This publication serves as an introduction to systems biology and its application to biological aging. Key pathways and processes that impinge on aging are reviewed, and how they contribute to health and disease during aging is discussed. The evolution of this situation is analyzed, and the consequences for the study of genetic effects on aging are presented. Epigenetic programming of aging, as a continuation of development, creates an interface between the genome and the environment. New research into the gut microbiome describes how this interface may operate in practice with marked consequences for a variety of disorders. This analysis is bolstered by a view of the aging organism as a whole, with conclusions about the mechanisms underlying resilience of the organism to change, and is expanded with a discussion of circadian rhythms in aging. Finally, the book presents an outlook for the development of interventions to delay or to reverse the features of aging. The publication is recommended to students, researchers as well as professionals dealing with public health and public policy related to an aging society.

A New Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080497396
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A New Ecology presents an ecosystem theory based on the following ecosystem properties: physical openness, ontic openness, directionality, connectivity, a complex dynamic for growth and development, and a complex dynamic response to disturbances. Each of these properties is developed in detail to show that these basic and characteristic properties can be applied to explain a wide spectrum of ecological obsevations and convections. It is also shown that the properties have application for environmental management and for assessment of ecosystem health. * Demonstrates an ecosystem theory that can be applied to explain ecological observations and rules * Presents an ecosystem theory based upon a systems approach * Discusses an ecosystem theory that is based on a few basic properties that are characteristic for ecosystmes

An Introduction to Complex Systems

Author: Paul Fieguth
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319446061
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This undergraduate text explores a variety of large-scale phenomena - global warming, ice ages, water, poverty - and uses these case studies as a motivation to explore nonlinear dynamics, power-law statistics, and complex systems. Although the detailed mathematical descriptions of these topics can be challenging, the consequences of a system being nonlinear, power-law, or complex are in fact quite accessible. This book blends a tutorial approach to the mathematical aspects of complex systems together with a complementary narrative on the global/ecological/societal implications of such systems. Nearly all engineering undergraduate courses focus on mathematics and systems which are small scale, linear, and Gaussian. Unfortunately there is not a single large-scale ecological or social phenomenon that is scalar, linear, and Gaussian. This book offers students insights to better understand the large-scale problems facing the world and to realize that these cannot be solved by a single, narrow academic field or perspective. Instead, the book seeks to emphasize understanding, concepts, and ideas, in a way that is mathematically rigorous, so that the concepts do not feel vague, but not so technical that the mathematics get in the way. The book is intended for undergraduate students in a technical domain such as engineering, computer science, physics, mathematics, and environmental studies.

Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology

Author: Bernard C. Patten
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 148326274X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Systems Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Volume IV continues the organization begun in Volume III to document a meeting, Modeling and Analysis of Ecosystems, held at the University of Georgia on 1-3 March 1973. Several chapters are considerably expanded over their original concept, and several others are included which were not part of the symposium. The book is organized into five parts. Part I contains chapters on estuarine-marine ecosystems. Part II presents models of several terrestrial ecosystems. Part III has chapters devoted to human aspects of ecology. Part IV considers special problems of ecosystem modeling, namely linear versus nonlinear models, aggregation, and validation. Part V, the most extensive section, describes theory in ecosystem analysis. The book’s chapters demonstrate the current scope of systems ecology—its past and present emphasis on parts and mechanisms in simulation modeling, and its movement toward systems analysis and new, more formal consideration of wholes in theory. They make clear that although the systems approach is young in ecology, it has substantially enriched the science both methodologically and conceptually.

Agent Directed Simulation and Systems Engineering

Author: Levent Yilmaz
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527627790
Format: PDF
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The only book to present the synergy between modeling and simulation, systems engineering, and agent technologies expands the notion of agent-based simulation to also deal with agent simulation and agent-supported simulation. Accessible to both practitioners and managers, it systematically addresses designing and building agent systems from a systems engineering perspective.

Foundations of Ecological Resilience

Author: Lance H. Gunderson
Publisher: Island Press
ISBN: 9781610911337
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Ecological resilience provides a theoretical foundation for understanding how complex systems adapt to and recover from localized disturbances like hurricanes, fires, pest outbreaks, and floods, as well as large-scale perturbations such as climate change. Ecologists have developed resilience theory over the past three decades in an effort to explain surprising and nonlinear dynamics of complex adaptive systems. Resilience theory is especially important to environmental scientists for its role in underpinning adaptive management approaches to ecosystem and resource management. Foundations of Ecological Resilience is a collection of the most important articles on the subject of ecological resilience—those writings that have defined and developed basic concepts in the field and help explain its importance and meaning for scientists and researchers. The book’s three sections cover articles that have shaped or defined the concepts and theories of resilience, including key papers that broke new conceptual ground and contributed novel ideas to the field; examples that demonstrate ecological resilience in a range of ecosystems; and articles that present practical methods for understanding and managing nonlinear ecosystem dynamics. Foundations of Ecological Resilience is an important contribution to our collective understanding of resilience and an invaluable resource for students and scholars in ecology, wildlife ecology, conservation biology, sustainability, environmental science, public policy, and related fields.