Understanding Complex Ecosystem Dynamics

Author: William S. Yackinous
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128020636
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Understanding Complex Ecosystem Dynamics: A Systems and Engineering Perspective takes a fresh, interdisciplinary perspective on complex system dynamics, beginning with a discussion of relevant systems and engineering skills and practices, including an explanation of the systems approach and its major elements. From this perspective, the author formulates an ecosystem dynamics functionality-based framework to guide ecological investigations. Next, because complex system theory (across many subject matter areas) is crucial to the work of this book, relevant network theory, nonlinear dynamics theory, cellular automata theory, and roughness (fractal) theory is covered in some detail. This material serves as an important resource as the book proceeds. In the context of all of the foregoing discussion and investigation, a view of the characteristics of ecological network dynamics is constructed. This view, in turn, is the basis for the central hypothesis of the book, i.e., ecological networks are ever-changing networks with propagation dynamics that are punctuated, local-to-global, and perhaps most importantly fractal. To analyze and fully test this hypothesis, an innovative ecological network dynamics model is defined, designed, and developed. The modeling approach, which seeks to emulate features of real-world ecological networks, does not make a priori assumptions about ecological network dynamics, but rather lets the dynamics develop as the model simulation runs. Model analysis results corroborate the central hypothesis. Additional important insights and principles are suggested by the model analysis results and by the other supporting investigations of this book – and can serve as a basis for going-forward complex system dynamics research, not only for ecological systems but for complex systems in general. Provides a fresh interdisciplinary perspective, offers a broad integrated development, and contains many new ideas Clearly explains the elements of the systems approach and applies them throughout the book Takes on the challenging and open issues of complex system network dynamics Develops and utilizes a new, innovative ecosystem dynamics modeling approach Contains over 135 graphic illustrations to help the reader visualize and understand important concepts

Engineering Hydrology for Natural Resources Engineers

Author: Ernest W. Tollner
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118928725
Format: PDF, ePub
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This fully revised edition provides a modern overview of the intersection of hydrology, water quality, and water management at the rural-urban interface. The book explores the ecosystem services available in wetlands, natural channels and ponds/lakes. As in the first edition, Part I examines the hydrologic cycle by providing strategies for quantifying each component: rainfall (with NOAH 14), infiltration, evapotranspiration and runoff. Part II examines field and farm scale water quality with an introduction to erosion prediction and water quality. Part III provides a concise examination of water management on the field and farm scale, emphasizing channel design, field control structures, measurement structures, groundwater processes and irrigation principles. Part IV then concludes the text with a treatment of basin-scale processes. A comprehensive suite of software tools is available for download, consisting of Excel spreadsheets, with some public domain models such as HY-8 culvert design, and software with public domain readers such as Mathematica, Maple and TK solver.

An Introduction to Complex Systems

Author: Paul Fieguth
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319446061
Format: PDF
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This undergraduate text explores a variety of large-scale phenomena - global warming, ice ages, water, poverty - and uses these case studies as a motivation to explore nonlinear dynamics, power-law statistics, and complex systems. Although the detailed mathematical descriptions of these topics can be challenging, the consequences of a system being nonlinear, power-law, or complex are in fact quite accessible. This book blends a tutorial approach to the mathematical aspects of complex systems together with a complementary narrative on the global/ecological/societal implications of such systems. Nearly all engineering undergraduate courses focus on mathematics and systems which are small scale, linear, and Gaussian. Unfortunately there is not a single large-scale ecological or social phenomenon that is scalar, linear, and Gaussian. This book offers students insights to better understand the large-scale problems facing the world and to realize that these cannot be solved by a single, narrow academic field or perspective. Instead, the book seeks to emphasize understanding, concepts, and ideas, in a way that is mathematically rigorous, so that the concepts do not feel vague, but not so technical that the mathematics get in the way. The book is intended for undergraduate students in a technical domain such as engineering, computer science, physics, mathematics, and environmental studies.

Ecosystem Engineers

Author:
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 9780080548470
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The first book entirely devoted to this topic, Ecosystem Engineers begins with the history of the concept, presenting opposing definitions of ecosystem engineeing. These varied definitions advance the debate and move past trivial difficulties to crystallize key issues such as the value of process-based vs. outcome-based. Authors include case studies spanning a wide spectrum of species and habitats, including above and below-ground, aquatic and terrestrial, and extant and paleontological examples. These studies enable readers to understand how the categorization of species as ecosystem engineers allows scientists to forge new explanatory generalizations. Key for all ecologists and environmentalists, this book ultimately illustrates how to inform and manage natural resources. The only consolidated treatment available Provides definitions, case studies, and examples of ecological models Discusses how ecosystem engineering can inform and improve the management of natural resources Includes contributions from Clive Jones, the leading figure in the development of the ecosystem engineer concept, and many other eminent ecologists, such as Alan Hastings

Aging and Health A Systems Biology Perspective

Author: A.I. Yashin
Publisher: Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
ISBN: 3318027308
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Aging is a major risk factor for chronic diseases, which in turn can provide information about the aging of a biological system. This publication serves as an introduction to systems biology and its application to biological aging. Key pathways and processes that impinge on aging are reviewed, and how they contribute to health and disease during aging is discussed. The evolution of this situation is analyzed, and the consequences for the study of genetic effects on aging are presented. Epigenetic programming of aging, as a continuation of development, creates an interface between the genome and the environment. New research into the gut microbiome describes how this interface may operate in practice with marked consequences for a variety of disorders. This analysis is bolstered by a view of the aging organism as a whole, with conclusions about the mechanisms underlying resilience of the organism to change, and is expanded with a discussion of circadian rhythms in aging. Finally, the book presents an outlook for the development of interventions to delay or to reverse the features of aging. The publication is recommended to students, researchers as well as professionals dealing with public health and public policy related to an aging society.

Philosophy of Complex Systems

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080931227
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The domain of nonlinear dynamical systems and its mathematical underpinnings has been developing exponentially for a century, the last 35 years seeing an outpouring of new ideas and applications and a concomitant confluence with ideas of complex systems and their applications from irreversible thermodynamics. A few examples are in meteorology, ecological dynamics, and social and economic dynamics. These new ideas have profound implications for our understanding and practice in domains involving complexity, predictability and determinism, equilibrium, control, planning, individuality, responsibility and so on. Our intention is to draw together in this volume, we believe for the first time, a comprehensive picture of the manifold philosophically interesting impacts of recent developments in understanding nonlinear systems and the unique aspects of their complexity. The book will focus specifically on the philosophical concepts, principles, judgments and problems distinctly raised by work in the domain of complex nonlinear dynamical systems, especially in recent years. -Comprehensive coverage of all main theories in the philosophy of Complex Systems -Clearly written expositions of fundamental ideas and concepts -Definitive discussions by leading researchers in the field -Summaries of leading-edge research in related fields are also included

Principles of Systems Science

Author: George E Mobus
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493919202
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This pioneering text provides a comprehensive introduction to systems structure, function, and modeling as applied in all fields of science and engineering. Systems understanding is increasingly recognized as a key to a more holistic education and greater problem solving skills, and is also reflected in the trend toward interdisciplinary approaches to research on complex phenomena. While the concepts and components of systems science will continue to be distributed throughout the various disciplines, undergraduate degree programs in systems science are also being developed, including at the authors’ own institutions. However, the subject is approached, systems science as a basis for understanding the components and drivers of phenomena at all scales should be viewed with the same importance as a traditional liberal arts education. Principles of Systems Science contains many graphs, illustrations, side bars, examples, and problems to enhance understanding. From basic principles of organization, complexity, abstract representations, and behavior (dynamics) to deeper aspects such as the relations between information, knowledge, computation, and system control, to higher order aspects such as auto-organization, emergence and evolution, the book provides an integrated perspective on the comprehensive nature of systems. It ends with practical aspects such as systems analysis, computer modeling, and systems engineering that demonstrate how the knowledge of systems can be used to solve problems in the real world. Each chapter is broken into parts beginning with qualitative descriptions that stand alone for students who have taken intermediate algebra. The second part presents quantitative descriptions that are based on pre-calculus and advanced algebra, providing a more formal treatment for students who have the necessary mathematical background. Numerous examples of systems from every realm of life, including the physical and biological sciences, humanities, social sciences, engineering, pre-med and pre-law, are based on the fundamental systems concepts of boundaries, components as subsystems, processes as flows of materials, energy, and messages, work accomplished, functions performed, hierarchical structures, and more. Understanding these basics enables further understanding both of how systems endure and how they may become increasingly complex and exhibit new properties or characteristics. Serves as a textbook for teaching systems fundamentals in any discipline or for use in an introductory course in systems science degree programs Addresses a wide range of audiences with different levels of mathematical sophistication Includes open-ended questions in special boxes intended to stimulate integrated thinking and class discussion Describes numerous examples of systems in science and society Captures the trend towards interdisciplinary research and problem solving

Perspectives on the Future of Software Engineering

Author: Jürgen Münch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 364237395X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The dependence on quality software in all areas of life is what makes software engineering a key discipline for today’s society. Thus, over the last few decades it has been increasingly recognized that it is particularly important to demonstrate the value of software engineering methods in real-world environments, a task which is the focus of empirical software engineering. One of the leading protagonists of this discipline worldwide is Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Dieter Rombach, who dedicated his entire career to empirical software engineering. For his many important contributions to the field he has received numerous awards and recognitions, including the U.S. National Science Foundation’s Presidential Young Investigator Award and the Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. He is a Fellow of both the ACM and the IEEE Computer Society. This book, published in honor of his 60th birthday, is dedicated to Dieter Rombach and his contributions to software engineering in general, as well as to empirical software engineering in particular. This book presents invited contributions from a number of the most internationally renowned software engineering researchers like Victor Basili, Barry Boehm, Manfred Broy, Carlo Ghezzi, Michael Jackson, Leon Osterweil, and, of course, by Dieter Rombach himself. Several key experts from the Fraunhofer IESE, the institute founded and led by Dieter Rombach, also contributed to the book. The contributions summarize some of the most important trends in software engineering today and outline a vision for the future of the field. The book is structured into three main parts. The first part focuses on the classical foundations of software engineering, such as notations, architecture, and processes, while the second addresses empirical software engineering in particular as the core field of Dieter Rombach’s contributions. Finally, the third part discusses a broad vision for the future of software engineering.

A New Ecology

Author: Sven Erik Jørgensen
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080497396
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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A New Ecology presents an ecosystem theory based on the following ecosystem properties: physical openness, ontic openness, directionality, connectivity, a complex dynamic for growth and development, and a complex dynamic response to disturbances. Each of these properties is developed in detail to show that these basic and characteristic properties can be applied to explain a wide spectrum of ecological obsevations and convections. It is also shown that the properties have application for environmental management and for assessment of ecosystem health. * Demonstrates an ecosystem theory that can be applied to explain ecological observations and rules * Presents an ecosystem theory based upon a systems approach * Discusses an ecosystem theory that is based on a few basic properties that are characteristic for ecosystmes

Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention

Author: Committee on an Evidence Framework for Obesity Prevention Decision Making
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309149894
Format: PDF, Docs
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To battle the obesity epidemic in America, health care professionals and policymakers need relevant, useful data on the effectiveness of obesity prevention policies and programs. Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention identifies a new approach to decision making and research on obesity prevention to use a systems perspective to gain a broader understanding of the context of obesity and the many factors that influence it.