Understanding Terrorism and Political Violence

Author: Dipak K. Gupta
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135982813
Format: PDF
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This book explains the lifecycle of terrorist organizations from an innovative theoretical perspective, combining economics with social psychology. It provides a new approach to understanding human behaviour in organized society, and then uses this to analyze the forces shaping the lifecycle of violent political movements. Economic and rational-choice theorists assume that human beings are motivated only by self-utility, yet terrorism is ultimately an altruistic act in the eyes of its participants. This book highlights the importance of the desire to belong to a group as a motivating factor, and argues that all of us face an eternal trade-off between selfishness and community concern. This hypothesis is explored through four key groups; the IRA in Northern Ireland, Al Qaeda, Hamas, and the Naxalites in India. Through this, the book analyzes the birth, growth, transformation and demise of violent political movements, and ends with an analysis of the conditions which determine the outcome of the war against terrorism. Understanding Terrorism and Political Violence will be essential reading for advanced students of terrorism studies and political science, and of great interest to students of social psychology and sociology.

Militancy and Political Violence in Shiism

Author: Assaf Moghadam
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136663533
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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This book is the first systematic assessment of current trends and patterns of militancy in Shii communities in the Middle East and South Asia - specifically in Iran, Iraq, but also in Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kuwait, and Bahrain More than thirty years after the Islamic Revolution in Iran, there are signs of a growing assertiveness on the part of Shii actors, at times erupting into political violence. The book addresses two key questions: What trends emerge in the types of militancy Shii actors employ both inside and outside of the Shii heartland? And what are the main drivers of militancy in the Shii community? The editor concludes that although at present Shii assertiveness does not take on a predominantly militant form, a 'subculture of violence' does exist among most Shii communities examined here, and suggests five key drivers of political violence among Shiis: the impact of Iran; nationalism and anti-imperialism; Shii self-protection and communal advancement; mahdism; and organizational dynamics. This book will be of great interest to students and researchers of terrorism studies and political violence, war and conflict studies, and IR/Security Studies in general.

Countering Terrorism

Author: Updesh Kumar
Publisher: SAGE Publishing India
ISBN: 813211714X
Format: PDF, ePub
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Countering Terrorism: Psychosocial Strategies contextualizes the issues related to terrorism and places the discourse within the ambit of sociocultural theories. The book goes beyond the obvious and commonsensical notions and discusses the relevant issues from interdisciplinary perspectives, informed by theoretical stances of not only psychological sciences, but other social sciences like political science, criminology, military, and sociology as well. The volume contains 18 chapters by expert authors with diverse cultural backgrounds and provides a wide ranging canvas for multifaceted understanding of the terror phenomenon. The opening section, 'Understanding Terrorism: Psychosocial Issues', places emphasis on developing a well-heeled construct with strong theoretical foundations and empirical understanding of the psycho-socio-cultural dynamics involved in perpetration of terror acts. The second section, 'Countering Terrorism: Psychosocial Avenues', flows from the understanding thus attained and expounds counter-terror strategies and preventive measures that go beyond the obvious short-term goals and envisage the creation of a peaceful world.

Emerging Trends in Indian Politics

Author: Ajay K Mehra
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136198547
Format: PDF, ePub
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This study presents 13 articles interrogating themes likely to impinge on India’s 15th general elections in 2009. These were written following intense discussion between the contributors and use available data as well as original data and analysis. The significance of the analyses goes beyond how much these questions find place in the campaign, or how much they would impact the electoral results. These have and would continue to be essential themes in Indian politics for some time. They would influence the country’s politics, its leaders, parties and institutions and would be interrogated in political, policy and social science circles in the foreseeable future. They would in turn be impacted, redefined and perhaps transformed by political dynamics and social pressure. The first attempt of its kind to analyse the impact of certain emerging trends in politics on upcoming elections anywhere in the world, this book will be a useful addition to election studies and policy making in general.

The Terrorist Criminal Nexus

Author: Jennifer L. Hesterman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466557621
Format: PDF
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Postmodern global terrorist groups engage sovereign nations asymmetrically with prolonged, sustained campaigns driven by ideology. Increasingly, transnational criminal organizations operate with sophistication previously only found in multinational corporations. Unfortunately, both of these entities can now effectively hide and morph, keeping law enforcement and intelligence agencies in the dark and on the run. Perhaps more disturbing is the fact that al Qaeda, Hezbollah, FARC, drug cartels, and increasingly violent gangs—as well as domestic groups such as the Sovereign Citizens—are now joining forces. Despite differing ideologies, they are threatening us in new and provocative ways. The Terrorist-Criminal Nexus: An Alliance of International Drug Cartels, Organized Crime, and Terror Groups frames this complex issue using current research and real-world examples of how these entities are sharing knowledge, training, tactics, and—in increasing frequency—joining forces. Providing policy makers, security strategists, law enforcement and intelligence agents, and students with new evidence of this growing threat, this volume: Examines current and future threats from international and domestic criminal and terror groups Identifies specific instances in which these groups are working together or in parallel to achieve their goals Discusses the "lifeblood" of modern organizations—the money trail Describes how nefarious groups leverage both traditional funding methods and e-commerce to raise, store, move, and launder money Explores the social networking phenomenon and reveals how it is the perfect clandestine platform for spying, communicating, recruiting, and spreading propaganda Investigates emergent tactics such as the use of human shields, and the targeting of first responders, schools, hospitals, and churches This text reveals the often disregarded, misunderstood, or downplayed nexus threat to the United States. Proving definitively that such liaisons exist despite differing ideologies, the book provides a thought-provoking new look at the complexity and phenomena of the terrorist-criminal nexus. This book was excerpted in the February/March 2013 issue of The Counter Terrorist.

Terrorism

Author: Joseba Zulaika
Publisher: University Of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226994154
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In counterterrorism circles, the standard response to questions about the possibility of future attacks is the terse one-liner: “Not if, but when.” This mantra supposedly conveys a realistic approach to the problem, but, as Joseba Zulaika argues in Terrorism, it functions as a self-fulfilling prophecy. By distorting reality to fit their own worldview, the architects of the War on Terror prompt the behavior they seek to prevent—a twisted logic that has already played out horrifically in Iraq. In short, Zulaika contends, counterterrorism has become pivotal in promoting terrorism. Exploring the blind spots of counterterrorist doctrine, Zulaika takes readers on a remarkable intellectual journey. He contrasts the psychological insight of Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood with The 9/11 Commission Report, plumbs the mindset of terrorists in works by Orianna Fallaci and Jean Genet, maps the continuities between the cold war and the fight against terrorism, and analyzes the case of a Basque terrorist who tried to return to civilian life. Zulaika’s argument is powerful, inventive, and rich with insights and ideas that provide a new and sophisticated perspective on the War on Terror.

India Pakistan and the Secret Jihad

Author: Praveen Swami
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134137524
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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India, Pakistan and the Secret Jihad explores the history of jihadist violence in Kashmir, and argues that the violent conflict which exploded after 1990 was not a historical discontinuity, but, rather, an escalation of what was by then a five-decade old secret war. Praveen Swami addresses three key issues: the history of jihadist violence in Jammu and Kashmir, which is examined as it evolved from 1947-48 onwards the impact of the secret jihad on Indian policy-making on Jammu and Kashmir, and its influence on political life within the state why the jihad in Jammu and Kashmir acquired such intensity in 1990. This new work will be of much interest to students of the India-Pakistan conflict, South Asian politics and security studies in general.

Simple Models to Explore Deterrence and More General Influence in the War with Al Qaeda

Author: Paul K. Davis
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN:
Format: PDF, Docs
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Deterring terrorism is best approached as part of a broad effort to influence all elements of a terrorist system, and simple, conceptual models of decisionmaking can help in understanding how to affect others' behavior. The paper lays out a theory of how to use influence to affect elements of a terrorist system, touching on root causes, individual motivation, public support, and likely factors in the decisionmaking of terrorist organizations.

Social Science for Counterterrorism

Author: Paul K. Davis
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 9780833047069
Format: PDF, ePub
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This monograph surveys and integrates scholarly social-science literature relevant to counterterrorism. It draws from numerous disciplines and then uses high-level conceptual models to pull the pieces together regarding root causes, individual radicalization, public support, and the ways in which terrorism fades. It identifies points of agreement and disagreement and discusses the consequences of different contexts and perspectives.