United States Bilateral Free Trade Agreements

Author: Mohamed Ramadan Hassanien
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041132813
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Summary: Trade between the United States and the eighteen countries of the Middle East and North Africa continues to grow at a steady pace, especially with countries which have signed trade agreements with the United States.

Regulation of Energy in International Trade Law

Author: Julia Selivanova
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041132643
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
Starting from the premise that a multilateral legal framework is the surest way to achieve predictability and transparency under conditions of increasing reliance on internationally traded energy, the essays gathered in this book treat the many complex interlocking issues raised by examining that desideratum in the light of current reality. Concentrating on the application of WTO agreements to energy trade - as well as energy-related issues addressed in the current WTO negotiations - the authors offer in-depth discussion and analysis of such issues as the following: the effectiveness of existing WTO agreements in addressing issues pertinent to energy trade how restrictive practices of energy endowed countries can be tackled under existing international trade rules; existing frameworks for investment in highly capital-intensive energy infrastructure projects;and conditions for access to pipelines and transmission grids; regulation of energy services; bioenergy development and trade; energy issues addressed in the WTO accession negotiations of energy endowed countries; international instruments of resolution of energy-related disputes.

Harmonization Equivalence and Mutual Recognition of Standards in WTO Law

Author: Humberto Zúñiga Schroder
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041136576
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
Standards are a feature of virtually all areas of trade in products and services. Yet, although standards may achieve an efficient economic exchange, they have discriminatory consequences for trading partners when governments formulate or apply them in such a way as to cause obstacles to trade, thus enrolling standards among the increasingly significant 'non-tariff barriers' regulated by the WTO. This unique and original study analyses the functions that standards fulfil in the market, their effect on trade, and the legal regime based on harmonization, equivalence and mutual recognition developed by the WTO to deal with standards. The author investigates the way in which both the WTO Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Measures Agreements regulate these three tools, and discusses key topics including: The definition of the concept 'International Standard' in the TBT Agreement. Guidelines on equivalence issued by organizations such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Organization for Animal Health and the International Plant Protection Convention. Parallels between the EC mutual recognition regime and the WTO system. This is the first work on its subject. With its detailed and practical analysis of WTO law on standards, the book is a fundamental reference for practitioners, academics and policy makers in international trade law.

India

Author: Germano Franceschin
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9041128360
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
India, a Union of 28 States and 7 territories, with a population of over a billion people and multiple cultures and languages, is a democratic republic often called, quite rightly, 'the largest democracy in the world'. Because the well-established English legal system endured after independence in 1947, India categorically remains a common law jurisdiction, and its legal practice and procedure is conducted almost exclusively in English. Nonetheless, Indian law is sufficiently complex in ways that are distinct from other European-based systems that a book such as this - in which the business legal system of India is thoroughly reviewed - will be really welcomed by both practitioners and academics. This book examines the full spectrum of India's legal system as it applies to commercial, customs, and tax matters, and covers among much else such elements as the following: division of executive and legislative powers between the Union and the individual States; role of the Supreme Court and State high courts; role of State legislative assemblies; levels of appeals in judiciary system; power of specialised State tribunals in, for example, tax, company law, bankruptcy; power of the State to appropriate property; constitutional protection of culture and environment; use and citation of foreign judgments and jurisprudence; contract law; trusts; industrial relations; minimum wage law; income tax rules and procedure; bilateral double taxation agreements; copyright and trademark protection; semiconductor integrated circuits layout design; protection of plant varieties and farmers' rights; competition law; multi-State cooperation agreements; and regulation of financial services. An extensive appendix supplies texts of the Constitution of India, the Indian Penal Code and 23 Legislative Acts pertaining to commercial, customs and tax matters. There is a sample franchise agreement, and an informative summary of current and projected foreign trade policy through 2014. Both as a guide to business lawyers working with Indian partners and as a comparative law treatment of the world's second most populous country (and a rapidly growing economic powerhouse), this book has no peers.

Preferential Trade Agreement Policies for Development

Author: Jean-Pierre Chauffour
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821386433
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
The Handbook offers an introduction to the key elements of Preferential Trade Agreements (PTAs), addressing the practical economic and legal aspects of the regulatory policies in PTAs.

The Future Security Environment in the Middle East

Author: Nora Bensahel
Publisher: Rand Corporation
ISBN: 083303619X
Format: PDF
Download Now
This report identifies several important trends that are shaping regional security. It examines traditional security concerns, such as energy security and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, as well as newer challenges posed by political reform, economic reform, civil-military relations, leadership change, and the information revolution. The report concludes by identifying the implications of these trends for U.S. foreign policy.

Asia s Free Trade Agreements

Author: Masahiro Kawai
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 0857930419
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
East Asia is the region of the world that is changing fastest in terms of trade arrangements. Dozens of free-trade agreements are signed every year, turning a complex situation into the East Asian noodle bowl of FTAs. This book addresses the crucial question posed by these new agreements how do they affect business? While many studies have focused on government-to-government issues, this book gets to the heart of the matter, studying what it means for the firms actually doing the trade and investment. I recommend this book to any serious student of trade, particularly those interested in understanding the rapidly evolving landscape in this most dynamic part of the world. Richard Baldwin, Professor of International Economics, Graduate Institute, Geneva, Switzerland The pursuit of more than one hundred Free Trade Agreements in East Asia is quietly producing a fundamental change in the global economic architecture. This path-breaking new volume provides an indispensable guide to the practical effect of such agreements on commercial transactions in the region. It is a must-read for businessmen and policymakers who seek to both understand the impact of FTAs in the real world and expand their contributions to economic growth and development. C. Fred Bergsten, Director, Peterson Institute for International Economics, US [East Asia] needs to think about appropriate measures to overcome the Asian FTA noodle bowl in the future. In this vein, the study suggests several practical measures including encouraging rationalization and flexibility of rules of origin, upgrading origin administration, improving business participation in FTA consultations, and strengthening institutional support systems for SMEs. . . It is hoped that this study will contribute to strengthening regional trade policies in Asia and compatibilities with global trade rules. Haruhiko Kuroda, President, Asian Development Bank This is a valuable contribution in a crowded field. Kawai and Wignaraja have gone beyond familiar arguments about the relative merits of regionalism and multilateralism to ask businesses what it all means to them. Policymakers should take note. Patrick Low, Chief Economist, WTO For policymakers in the region, the debate is no longer between regionalism and multilateralism. The real question is how we should create the model for regionalism that will become the building blocks to a multilateral trading system and avoid raising costs of doing business from the noodle bowl effect. Therefore the comparative and micro-level research found in this book provides valuable insights on the impact of FTAs on businesses. These insights will be relevant input as policymakers forge ahead in implementing regional FTAs, thinking of ways to amend and improve on them and, most importantly, harmonize or consolidate between existing regional FTAs in East Asia. Mari Pangestu, Minister of Trade, Indonesia The spread of Asia s free trade agreements (FTAs) has sparked an important debate on the impact of such agreements on business activity. This pioneering study uses new evidence from surveys of East Asian exporters including Japan, the People s Republic of China, the Republic of Korea and three ASEAN economies of the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand to shed light on the FTA debate. Critics are concerned that FTAs erode the multilateral trading process and foster an alarming noodle bowl of overlapping regulations and rules of origin requirements which may be costly to business. Asia s Free Trade Agreements makes key recommendations for improving business use of FTA preferences, reducing costs of FTAs and creating a region-wide FTA. This well-researched and documented book will appeal to undergraduate and postgraduate students in international business, international economics, economic development, public administration and public policy. Academics, researchers and members of think-tanks around the world will also benefit from this book as will trad

Regional Trade Agreements and the Multilateral Trading System

Author: Rohini Acharya
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1316889416
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
This volume contains a collection of studies examining trade-related issues negotiated in regional trade agreements (RTAs) and how RTAs are related to the WTO's rules. While previous work has focused on subsets of RTAs, these studies are based on what is probably the largest dataset used to date, and highlight key issues that have been negotiated in all RTAs notified to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). New rules within RTAs are compared to rules agreed upon by WTO members. The extent of their divergences and the potential implications for parties to RTAs, as well as for WTO members that are not parties to RTAs, are examined. This volume makes an important contribution to the current debate on the role of the WTO in regulating international trade and how WTO rules relate to new rules being developed by RTAs.