Urban Environmental Policy Analysis

Author: Heather E. Campbell
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 131745278X
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This timely book provides a wealth of useful information for following through on today's renewed concern for sustainability and environmentalism. It's designed to help city managers, policy analysts, and government administrators think comprehensively and communicate effectively about environmental policy issues.The authors illustrate a system-based framework model of the city that provides a holistic view of environmental media (land, air, and water) while helping decision-makers to understand the extent to which environmental policy decisions are intertwined with the natural, built, and social systems of the city. They go on to introduce basic and environment-specific policy-analytic models, methods, and tools; presents numerous specific environmental policy puzzles that will confront cities; and introduces methods for understanding and educating public opinions around urban environmental policy.The book is grounded in the policy-analytic perspective rather than political science, economic, or planning frameworks. It includes both new scholarship and synthesis of existing policy analysis. Numerous tables, figures, checklists, and maps, as well as a comprehensive reference list are included.

Urban Transportation and the Environment

Author: Sudhakar Yedla
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 8132223136
Format: PDF, Kindle
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The book deals with urban transportation planning in light of environmental sustainability and social equity. It begins with a review of the Indian urban transportation system and the issues surrounding it, and discusses the alternatives and policy directions that are being considered. It examines all the environmental issues arising out of transportation as a sector and assesses the alternatives that can be considered to improve sustainability. Further, the book not only analyses transportation modes that cater to the travel needs of the poor, so as to make them more socially equitable, but also explores measures to promote them using a multi-criteria and multi-stakeholder approach. It addresses the barriers that are bottlenecks for the implementation of cleaner fuels and modes of transport and presents an incremental approach to tackle environmental concerns, including climate change, when planning transportation in the long term. Finally, it presents the dilemma of city administrators in choosing between strategies aimed at local pollution control and those aimed at limiting global emissions. This unique book provides a comprehensive overview of “sustainable transportation.” It discusses all the important elements that are essential to transportation planners and policy makers when planning a city’s transportation. Theoretical presentations augmented by case-specific research work and the methodology used in some of the modules, make it a valuable resource for researchers working at the forefront of this area.

Environmental Policy Analysis and Practice

Author: Michael R Greenberg
Publisher: Rutgers University Press
ISBN: 0813544734
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Pressing environmental challenges are frequently surrounded with stakeholders on all sides of the issues. Opinions expressed by government agencies, the private sector, special interests, nonprofit communities, and the media, among others can quickly cloud the dialogue, leaving one to wonder how policy decisions actually come about. In Environmental Policy Analysis and Practice, Michael R. Greenberg cuts through the complicated layers of bureaucracy, science, and the public interest to show how all policy considerations can be broken down according to six specific factors: 1) the reaction of elected government officials, 2) the reactions of the public and special interests, 3) knowledge developed by scientists and engineers, 4) economics, 5) ethical imperatives, and 6) time pressure to make a decision. The book is organized into two parts, with the first part defining and illustrating each one of these criteria. Greenberg draws on examples such as nuclear power, pesticides, brownfield redevelopment, gasoline additives, and environmental cancer, but focuses on how these subjects can be analyzed rather than exclusively on the issues themselves. Part two goes on to describe a set of over twenty tools that are used widely in policy analysis, including risk assessment, environmental impact analysis, public opinion surveys, cost-benefit analysis, and others. These tools are described and then illustrated with examples from part one. Weaving together an impressive combination of practical advice and engaging first person accounts from government officials, administrators, and leaders in the fields of public health and medicine, this clearly written volume is poised to become a leading text in environmental policy.

Nature and the City

Author: Gene Desfor
Publisher: University of Arizona Press
ISBN: 9780816523733
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Pollution of air, soil, and waterways has become a primary concern of urban environmental policy making, and over the past two decades there has emerged a new era of urban policy that links development with ecological issues, based on the notion that both nature and the economy can be enhanced through technological changes to production and consumption systems. This book takes a new look at this application of "ecological modernization" to contemporary urban political-ecological struggles. Considering policy processes around land-use in urban watersheds and pollution of air and soil in two disparate North American "global cities," it criticizes the dominant belief in the power of markets and experts to regulate environments to everyoneÕs benefit, arguing instead that civil political action by local constituencies can influence the establishment of beneficial policies. The book emphasizes ÔsubalternÕ environmental justice concerns as instrumental in shaping the policy process. Looking back to the 1990sÑwhen ecological modernization began to emerge as a dominant approach to environmental policy and theoryÑDesfor and Keil examine four case studies: restoration of the Don River in Toronto, cleanup of contaminated soil in Toronto, regeneration of the Los Angeles River, and air pollution reduction in Los Angeles. In each case, they show that local constituencies can develop political strategies that create alternatives to ecological modernization. When environmental policies appear to have been produced through solely technical exercises, they warn, one must be suspicious about the removal of contention from the process. In the face of economic and environmental processes that have been increasingly influenced by neo-liberalism and globalization, Desfor and KeilÕs analysis posits that continuing modernization of industrial capitalist societies entails a measure of deliberate change to societal relationships with nature in cities. Their book shows that environmental policies are about much more than green capitalism or the technical mastery of problems; they are about how future urban generations live their lives with sustainability and justice.

Sustainable Cities in Europe

Author: Peter Nijkamp
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134166346
Format: PDF, Docs
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Worldwide, urbanization is steadily increasing, yet many modern cities are becoming less and less able to accommodate the growth in their population. Congestion, pollution, low-quality housing, social fragmentation, noise, crime and inadequate social services all contribute to a declining quality of urban life. Planners and policy makers are battling to alleviate the problems with a variety of urban renewal initiatives, and energy-environmental policies have become central to their quest for urban sustainability. Sustainable Cities in Europe gives a comprehensive introduction to the available urban energy and environmental policies. Drawing on a detailed analysis of the CITIES programme of the Commission of the European Communities, the book includes detailed case studies of European cities which are devising and implementing alternative strategies for sustainable growth and development. The cities discussed include: Amsterdam, Besancon, Braganca, Cadiz, Dublin, Esch/Alzette, Gent, Mannheim, Newcastle, Odense, Thessaloniki and Turin. The policy discussions and case studies in this book will be invaluable for all those professionally or academically involved in the pressing issue of city planning development. Peter Nijkamp is Professor in Regional, Urban and Environmental Economics at Free University, Amsterdam. Author of numerous books, he is a world authority on environmental economics and urban policy. Adriaan Perrels is head of the research department of the Energy Studies Centre in Petten, The Netherlands. He has worked extensively in the field of energy planning and electricity load management. Originally published in 1994

Urban Planning Methods

Author: Ian Bracken
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317833260
Format: PDF, Mobi
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In order to develop and exercise their skills urban planners need to draw upon a wide variety of methods relating to plan and policy making, urban research and policy analysis. More than ever, planners need to be able to adapt their methods to contemporary needs and circumstances. This introductory textbook focuses on the need to combine traditional research methods with policy analysis in order to understand the true nature of urban planning processes. It describes both planning methods and their underlying concepts and principles, illustrating applications by reference to the daily activities of planning, including the assessment of needs and preferences of the population, the generation and implementation of plans and policies, and the need to take decisions related to the allocation of land, population change, employment, housing and retailing. Ian Bracken also provides a comprehensive guide to the more specialized research literature and case studies of contemporary urban planning practice. This book was first published in 1981.

Choosing Environmental Policy

Author: Winston Professor Harrington
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136524932
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The two distinct approaches to environmental policy include direct regulation-sometimes called 'command and control' policies-and regulation by economic, or market-based incentives. This book is the first to compare the costs and outcomes of these approaches by examining realworld applications. In a unique format, paired case studies from the United States and Europe contrast direct regulation on one side of the Atlantic with an incentivebased policy on the other. For example, Germanys direct regulation of SO2 emissions is compared with an incentive approach in the U.S. Direct regulation of water pollution via the U.S. Clean Water Act is contrasted with Hollands incentive-based fee system. Additional studies contrast solutions for eliminating leaded gasoline and reducing nitrogen oxide emissions, CFCs, and chlorinated solvents. The cases presented in Choosing Environmental Policy were selected to allow the sharpest, most direct comparisons of direct regulation and incentive-based strategies. In practice, environmental policy is often a mix of both types of instruments. This innovative investigation will interest scholars, students, and policymakers who want more precise information as to what kind of 'blend' will yield the most effective policy. Are incentive instruments more efficient than regulatory ones? Do regulatory policies necessarily have higher administrative costs? Are incentive policies more difficult to monitor? Are firms more likely to oppose market-based instruments or traditional regulation? These are some of the important questions the authors address, often with surprising results.

Transport Land Use and the Environment

Author: Yoshitsugu Hayashi
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1475724756
Format: PDF, Docs
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Coordination of land use and transport is one of the most important issues in urban planning from the viewpoint of transport infrastructure supply and amenity in urban space. There has been, therefore, much research conducted in the fields of empirical analysis and theoretical and mathematical modelling of the mechanisms of land use-transport interaction. The members of the Transport and Land Use SIG (Special Interest Group) of the WCTRS (World Conference on Transport Research Society) have conducted extensive research in these fields. Leading on from the activities of ISGLUTI (International Study Group on Land Use-Transport Interaction) chaired by Dr. Vernon Webster, its output was published as a book "Land Use-Transport Interaction / Policies and Models". Concurrently with this ongoing research, energy consumption in the transport sector has been increasing rapidly and become a crucial issue from the viewpoint of global environmental conservation. An emerging research need is to examine and structurally identify the mechanisms of the influence of land use-transport interaction on energy consumption and environmental damage, both locally and globally. The SIG held a seminar in December 1993 in Blackheath, Australia which was the first meeting where world class land use-transport experts gathered to discuss the above topic, covering fact finding, scenario analysis and modelling. This book contains selected papers from the seminar. The Australian Government, CSIRO (Australia) and the Asahi Glass Foundation (Japan) supported the seminar. The book was edited with an enormous and patient help by Dr. Omar Osman at Nagoya University.