Urban Groundwater Meeting the Challenge

Author: Ken W.F. Howard
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0203947053
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
During the past three decades, urban groundwater has emerged as one of the world’s most pressing issues. Explosive population growth, most prevalent in cities, has placed an inordinate demand on groundwater supply, prompting concerns for its long-term sustainability at a time when the quality of available groundwater resources is being increasingly degraded by anthropogenic activity. Cities less reliant on groundwater for potable supply are equally obliged to manage subsurface water with cautious respect since rising groundwater levels can generate a myriad of problems such as unstable land slopes, flooded basements, tunnels and electrical utilities, and the release of polluted water to urban wetlands, springs and streams. Challenges in Urban Groundwater is premised on a growing recognition that most urban groundwater problems are not uniquely associated with any particular region or hydrogeological environment, and much can be learned by understanding the successes and failures of others. It showcases the best urban groundwater papers presented at the International Geological Congress held in Florence, Italy in 2004, and is supplemented by contributions solicited from other world experts active in urban groundwater research. Topics covered range from the urban water balance and rising groundwater levels to groundwater contamination and the role of aquifer modelling.

The Agricultural Groundwater Revolution

Author: Mark Giordano
Publisher: CABI
ISBN: 1845931726
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
While addressing the issues of using groundwater in agriculture for irrigation in the developing world, this book discusses the problems associated with the degradation and overexploitation of using it. It explores the practiced and potential methods for its management in the context of agricultural development.

From Greenhouse to Icehouse

Author: Donald R. Prothero
Publisher: Columbia University Press
ISBN: 0231127162
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
The marine Eocene-Oligocene transition of 34 million years ago was a critical turning point in Earth's climatic history, when the warm, high-diversity "greenhouse" world of the early Eocene ceded to the glacial, "icehouse" conditions of the early Oligocene. This book surveys the advances in stratigraphic and paleontological research and isotopic analysis made since 1989 in regard to marine deposits around the world. In particular, it summarizes the high-resolution details of the so-called doubthouse interval (roughly 45 to 34 million years ago), which is critical to testing climatic and evolutionary hypotheses about the Eocene deterioration. The authors' goals are to discuss the latest information concerning climatic and oceanographic change associated with this transition and to examine geographic and taxonomic patterns in biotic turnover that provide clues about where, when, and how fast these environmental changes happened. They address a range of topics, including the tectonic and paleogeographic setting of the Paleogene; specific issues related to the stratigraphy of shelf deposits; advances in recognizing and correlating boundary sections; trends in the expression of climate change; and patterns of faunal and floral turnover. In the process, they produce a valuable synthesis of patterns of change by latitude and environment.

Ostracods in British Stratigraphy

Author: J. E. Whittaker
Publisher: Geological Society Publishing House
ISBN: 9781862392748
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Download Now
This book charts the stratigraphical distribution of ostracods in the Cambrian to Pleistocene deposits of Britain and outlines their utility for dating and correlating rock sequences, as well as indicating aspects of their palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. These small bivalved crustaceans are the most abundant arthropods in the fossil record. Indeed, the stratigraphy of Britain, which embraces many type-sequences, provides a particularly rich and full record of them, from at least the basal Ordovician, and from the British Cambrian there is a biostratigraphy based on their 'relatives', the bradoriids and phosphatocopids. Ostracod distributions demonstrate the ecological success story of the group, occupying as they do marine, non-marine and even 'terrestrial' habitats. Written by current specialists in the field, this book is an authoritative account and will be welcomed by all micropalaeontologists and applied geologists in the industrial and academic world alike. It is richly illustrated with over 80 plates of electron micrographs and specially drawn maps, diagrams and range-charts.

The Boundaries of the West African Craton

Author: Nasser Ennih
Publisher: Geological Society of London
ISBN: 9781862392519
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
The boundaries of rigid cratons can be affected by subsequent orogenic events, leading to metacratonic characteristics not often properly recognized and still poorly understood. Major lithospheric thickening is absent and early events such as ophiolites are preserved; however, metacratonic boundaries are affected by major shear zones, abundant magmatism and mineralizations, and local high-pressure metamorphism. West Africa, marked by the large Eburnian (c. 2 Ga) West African craton, the absence of Mesoproterozoic events, the major Pan-African (0.9-0.55 Ga) mobile belts that generated the Peri-Gondawanan terranes, and the weaker but enlightening Variscan and Alpine orogenies, is an excellent place for tackling this promising concept of metacratonization. The papers in this book consider most of the West African craton boundaries, from the reworking of the Palaeoproterozoic terranes, through the Pan-African encircling terranes, the late Neoproterozoic-early Palaeozoic extension period and the Peri-Gondwanan terranes, the Variscan imprint to the current situation.

Mountain Risks From Prediction to Management and Governance

Author: Theo Van Asch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400767692
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Download Now
This book offers a cross disciplinary treatment of the rapidly growing field of integrated approaches in risk assessment in mountainous areas. All major aspects related to hazard and risk assessment, risk management, and governance are illustrated with a wide range of case studies. The first part of the book focuses on new techniques for assessing the natural hazards of different types of mass movements. State-of-the-art techniques for morphological characterization and monitoring of displacements are described. Computational advances are covered to explain the process systems and to quantify the hazards of fast and slow-moving landslides. In the second part of the book methodologies are included for assessing the impact of these natural hazards on the society in terms of risks. In this part, methodologies for defining the vulnerability of the elements at risk are shown and the use of run-out models for risk assessment of the dangerous rapid mass movements are evaluated. The third part of the book focuses on the response of society towards the problems of hazard and risk. It highlights the role of spatial planning, early warning systems and evacuation plans for risk management. It establishes practical thresholds for acceptable and tolerable risks and emphasizes the importance of education and communication to society. Audience The book is of interest to a wide range of experts from related disciplines, practitioners and stakeholders to demonstrate the importance of an integrated approach for all aspects of risks in mountainous areas.

Natural and Artificial Rockslide Dams

Author: Stephen G. Evans
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642047637
Format: PDF
Download Now
In the last one hundred years, a number of catastrophic events associated with rockslide dam formation and failure have occurred in the mountain regions of the world. This book presents a global view of the formation, characteristics and behaviour of natural and artificial rockslide dams. Chapters include a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of our global understanding natural and artificial rockslide dams, overviews of approaches to rockslide dam risk mitigation, regional studies of rockslide dams in India, Nepal, China, Pakistan, New Zealand, and Argentina. Rockslide dams associated with large-scale instability of volcanoes are also examined. Detailed case histories of well-known historic and prehistoric rockslide dams provide examples of investigations of rockslide dam behaviour, stability, and characteristics. The formation and behaviour of rockslide-dammed lakes ("Quake Lakes") formed during the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China are also comprehensively summarised. The formation, sedimentology and stability of rockslide dams is examined in several analytical papers. An analysis of break-out floods from volcanogenic lakes and hydrological methods of estimating break-out flood magnitude and behavior are reviewed. The use of remote sensing data in rockslide-dammed lake characterisation is explored and a new approach to the classification of rockslide dams is introduced. Finally, a unique section of the book summarises Russian and Kyrgyz experience with blast-fill dam construction in two papers by leading authorities on the technology. The volume contains 24 papers by 50 authors from 16 countries including most of the recognised world authorities on the subject.

Science at the Highest Level

Author: David R. Lageson
Publisher: Geological Society of America
ISBN: 0813700035
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
These guides from the 2002 GSA Annual Meeting in Denver, Colorado, are open access at www.gsapubs.org.

Groundwater Resources Assessment

Author: J. Balek
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080870298
Format: PDF, Kindle
Download Now
The development of environmentally sound groundwater resources has recently become a high priority throughout the world. Many countries are currently developing comprehensive regulations for the management of groundwater resources. Within this framework an assessment of renewable groundwater resources is one of the most important factors. This book is based on the author's many years of experience in the assessment of surface and subsurface water resources, field experiments and computer oriented work, in both developed and developing countries. An environmental approach is followed. Groundwater resources are seen as a part of the aquatic ecosystem in which not only geology but the whole lithosphere, vegetation, surface resources and atmosphere play an equally important role. Both simple and advanced models are presented, which can also be applied to complicated geological structures where standard groundwater models fail to operate. Conceptual and stochastic models are presented in a form which the reader can use as a guide for further model development - an approach much in demand in regions where many different features and a variety of data are available. Experimental work leading to the identification of groundwater resources is also broadly discussed. The book will prove valuable to students at university level, researchers, institutes, departments, and consultancies involved in water resources.

Karst without Boundaries

Author: Zoran Stevanović
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498787738
Format: PDF, Mobi
Download Now
Karstified rocks of different lithology cover more than 10% of the continental surface of our planet. It is known that some 20% or even a few percent more of the global population largely depends on karstic groundwater but in many karst areas all over the world there are limited natural resources including absence of drinking waters. The problems of water shortage, equitable water use or water protection from pollution, become more problematic when they come to transboundary regions. The Dinaric region is a classical karst area where created borders of newly established countries after the civil war in 1990s resulted with an urgent need to create ambience for sustainable water management. The project DIKTAS is one of the first ever attempts to establish sustainable integrated management principles in a transboundary karst aquifer of the magnitude of the Dinaric Karst System. This volume presents selected papers from the conference held in June 2014 in Trebinje, Bosnia & Herzegovina including presentations of some of the project’s achievements but also number of other research results conducted in karst environments worldwide.