Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces

Author: Peter Brimblecombe
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783268875
Format: PDF, Docs
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Pollution damages materials, but it has changed dramatically in the past century, with a reduction in the concentration of corrosive primary pollutants in urban atmospheres. At the same time, architectural styles and types of materials have changed, as we have moved to more organically rich, photochemically active atmospheres. Contemporary pollutants have a greater potential to degrade organic coatings and polymers, which are of great importance to modern structures. Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces examines a range of materials, discussing the ways in which they are likely to be damaged by contemporary urban pollutants, with an emphasis on the effects of air pollution. A chapter on graffiti is also included. The wide scope covered means that this volume is suitable for readers from a broad background. It should be of interest to scientists and policymakers dealing with the effects of urban pollution, as well as undergraduate and graduate students working in this area. This book, with its wealth of information, is of exceedingly good value for readers who seek to understand more on the changes of materials and building surfaces by urban pollution. Contents:Past, Present and Future Damage to Materials and Building Surfaces in the Polluted Urban EnvironmentWeathering of Building MaterialsAir Pollution Damage to StoneComposition and Chemistry of Crusts on StoneSoiling and DiscolourationAir Pollution Damage to MetalsAir Pollution Damage to GlassAir Pollution and Changes to the Biology of Urban FabricThe Whole Building and Patterns of DegradationThe Historic and Archaeological Heritage: Pollution and Non-Urban SitesEvaluation of Cleaning Methods for Graffiti Removal Readership: Scientists and policymakers dealing with the effects of urban pollution, as well as undergraduate and graduate students working in this area. Key Features:There are very few books that treat the problem in general although there are some on materials such as stone, glass and metals, which have chapters on air pollutantsKeywords:Damage to Materials;Building Surfaces;Stone;Metal;Glass

New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation

Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128110341
Format: PDF
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New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation summarizes recent progress in the development of materials’ properties, fabrication methods and their applications for treatment of contaminants, pollutant sensing and detection. This book presents current research into how polymer nanocomposites can be used in environmental remediation, detailing major environmental issues, and key materials properties and existing polymers or nanomaterials that can solve these issues. The book covers the fundamental molecular structure of polymers used in environmental applications, the toxicology, economy and life-cycle analysis of polymer nanocomposites, and an analysis of potential future applications of these materials. Recent research and development in polymer nanocomposites has inspired the progress and use of novel and cost-effective environmental applications. Presents critical, actionable guidelines to the structure and property design of nanocomposites in environmental remediation Focuses on taking technology out of the lab and into the real world Summarizes the latest developments in polymer nanocomposites and their applications in catalytic degradation, adsorptive removal and detection of contaminants in the environment Enables researchers to stay ahead of the curve, with a full discussion of regulatory issues and potential new applications and materials in this area

Advanced Materials for the Conservation of Stone

Author: Majid Hosseini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319722603
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book identifies novel advanced materials that can be utilized as protective agents for the preservation of stone. The innovative solutions to stone conservation presented here result in increased sustainability, reduced environmental impact, and increased social and economic benefits. It provides an overview of recent trends and progress in advanced materials applied to stone protection. It also explores the scientific principles behind these advanced materials and discusses their applications to diff erent types of stone preservation efforts. Essential information as well as knowledge on the availability and applicability of advanced nanostructured materials is also provided, with focus placed on the practical aspects of stone protection. Th e book highlights an interdisciplinary eff ort regarding novel applications of nanostructured materials in the advancement of stone protection. It provides insight towards forthcoming developments in the fi eld. Advanced nanostructured materials are designed and developed with the aim of being chemically, physically, and mechanically compatible with stone. Advanced materials for stone conservation that are characterized by several functional properties are considered in this book. These include the physico-chemical, protective, and morphological properties, eco-toxicity, and mechanisms of degradation. The authors present a thorough overview of cutting–edge discoveries, detailed information on recent technological developments, breakthroughs in novel nanomaterials, utilization strategies for applications in cultural heritage, and the current status and future outlook of the topic to address a wide range of scientific communities.

The Effects of Air Pollution on the Built Environment

Author: Peter Brimblecombe
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783261366
Format: PDF, ePub
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Air pollution damages materials, but it has changed dramatically in the past century, with a reduction in the concentration of corrosive primary pollutants in urban atmospheres. At the same time, architectural styles and types of materials have changed, as we have moved to more organically rich, photochemically active atmospheres. Contemporary air pollutants have the potential to degrade organic coatings and polymers, which are of great importance to modern structures, while increasing amounts of fine diesel soot spoil the simple lines and smooth areas characteristic of many modern buildings. This book examines a range of materials, discussing the ways in which they are likely to be damaged by air pollutants. It should be of interest to scientists and policymakers dealing with the effects of urban air pollution. Contents: Long Term Damage to the Built Environment (P Brimblecombe & D Camuffo)Background Controls on Urban Stone Decay: Lessons from Natural Rock Weathering (B J Smith)Mechanisms of Air Pollution Damage to Stone (C Sabbioni)Mechanisms of Air Pollution Damage to Brick, Concrete and Mortar (T Yates)Salts and Crusts (M Steiger)Organic Pollutants in the Built Environment and Their Effect on the Microorganisms (C Saiz-Jimenez)Air Pollution Damage to Metals (J Tidblad & V Kucera)The Effect of Air Pollution on Glass (J Leissner)The Effects of Ozone on Materials — Experimental Evaluation of the Susceptibility of Polymeric Materials to Ozone (D S Lee et al.)The Soiling of Buildings by Air Pollution (J Watt & R Hamilton)Changes in Soiling Patterns Over Time on the Cathedral of Learning (W Tang et al.)Exposure of Buildings to Pollutants in Urban Areas: A Review of the Contributions from Different Sources (D J Hall et al.)The Whole Building and Patterns of Degradation (R Inkpen) Readership: Air pollution policymakers, environmental scientists, architects and conservators. Keywords:Weathering;Biodeterioration;Soiling;Air Pollution Damage to: Stone, Brick, Salts, Crusts, Metal, Glass, PolymersReviews:“Overall, this volume succeeds well in its aim to examine a range of materials and discuss the ways in which they are likely to be damaged by air pollutants. There is a wealth of useful information, and the wide scope means that it is of broad interest … the book is amazingly good value for a hardback specialized volume.”Environmental Conservation

Urban Climates

Author: T. R. Oke
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108179363
Format: PDF, ePub
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Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.

The Effects of Air Pollution on Cultural Heritage

Author: John Watt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387848938
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book reviews the sources of the air pollutants responsible for building damage and the mechanisms involved. Studies investigating the relationships between pollution concentration (dose) and the resulting damage (response) are described and the latest research findings for dose-response functions are presented. Trends in pollutant emissions, ambient concentrations and building damage over time are described and future predictions are presented. Methodologies for assessing the extent of the potential problem in a region – the stock at risk – are presented. Procedures for estimating the economic implications are described and the consequences are discussed in detail, because economic factors are important for reaching policy and management decisions at local, national and international scales. Damage to cultural heritage buildings is an important additional effect which needs to be considered as the standards are revised and the factors which will need to be brought into the assessment are presented.

Health Effects of Transport related Air Pollution

Author: Michał Krzyżanowski
Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe
ISBN: 9289013737
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Diseases related to the air pollution caused by road transport affect tens of thousands of people in the WHO Europe region each year. This publication considers the policy challenges involved in the need to reduce the related risks to public health and the environment, whilst meeting socio-economic requirements for effective transport systems. It sets out a systematic review of the literature and a comprehensive evaluation of the health hazards of transport-related air pollution, including factors determining emissions, the contribution of traffic to pollution levels, human exposure and the results of epidemiological and toxicological studies to identify and measure the health effects, and suggestions for policy actions and further research.

Eco efficient Materials for Mitigating Building Cooling Needs

Author: Fernando Pacheco-Torgal
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 1782424016
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Climate change is one of the most important environmental problems faced by Planet Earth. The majority of CO2 emissions come from burning fossil fuels for energy production and improvements in energy efficiency shows the greatest potential for any single strategy to abate global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the energy sector. Energy related emissions account for almost 80% of the EU's total greenhouse gas emissions. The building sector is the largest energy user responsible for about 40% of the EU’s total final energy consumption. In Europe the number of installed air conditioning systems has increased 500% over the last 20 years, but in that same period energy cooling needs have increased more than 20 times. The increase in energy cooling needs relates to the current higher living and working standards. In urban environments with low outdoor air quality (the general case) this means that in summer-time one cannot count on natural ventilation to reduce cooling needs. Do not forget the synergistic effect between heat waves and air pollution which means that outdoor air quality is worse in the summer aggravating cooling needs. Over the next few years this phenomenon will become much worse because more people will live in cities, more than 2 billion by 2050 and global warming will aggravate cooling needs. An overview of materials to lessen the impact of urban heat islands Excellent coverage of building materials to reduce air condtioning needs Innovative products discussed such as Thermo and Electrochromic materials

Nature Based Strategies for Urban and Building Sustainability

Author: Gabriel Perez
Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann
ISBN: 0128123249
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Nature Based Strategies for Urban and Building Sustainability reviews the current state-of-the-art on the topic. In the introduction, the editors review the fundamental concepts of nature elements in the built environment, along with the strategies that are necessary for their inclusion in buildings and cities. Part One describes strategies for the urban environment, discussing urban ecosystems and ecosystem services, while Part Two covers strategies and technologies, including vertical greening systems, green roofs and green streets. Part Three covers the quantitative benefits, results, and issues and challenges, including energy performances and outdoor comfort, air quality improvement, acoustic performance, water management and biodiversity. Provides an overview of the different strategies available to integrate nature in the built environment Presents the current state of technology concerning systems and methodologies on how to incorporate nature in buildings and cities Features the latest research results on operation and ecosystem services Covers both established and new designs, including those still in the experimental stage