Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces

Author: Peter Brimblecombe
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783268875
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Pollution damages materials, but it has changed dramatically in the past century, with a reduction in the concentration of corrosive primary pollutants in urban atmospheres. At the same time, architectural styles and types of materials have changed, as we have moved to more organically rich, photochemically active atmospheres. Contemporary pollutants have a greater potential to degrade organic coatings and polymers, which are of great importance to modern structures. Urban Pollution and Changes to Materials and Building Surfaces examines a range of materials, discussing the ways in which they are likely to be damaged by contemporary urban pollutants, with an emphasis on the effects of air pollution. A chapter on graffiti is also included. The wide scope covered means that this volume is suitable for readers from a broad background. It should be of interest to scientists and policymakers dealing with the effects of urban pollution, as well as undergraduate and graduate students working in this area. This book, with its wealth of information, is of exceedingly good value for readers who seek to understand more on the changes of materials and building surfaces by urban pollution. Contents:Past, Present and Future Damage to Materials and Building Surfaces in the Polluted Urban EnvironmentWeathering of Building MaterialsAir Pollution Damage to StoneComposition and Chemistry of Crusts on StoneSoiling and DiscolourationAir Pollution Damage to MetalsAir Pollution Damage to GlassAir Pollution and Changes to the Biology of Urban FabricThe Whole Building and Patterns of DegradationThe Historic and Archaeological Heritage: Pollution and Non-Urban SitesEvaluation of Cleaning Methods for Graffiti Removal Readership: Scientists and policymakers dealing with the effects of urban pollution, as well as undergraduate and graduate students working in this area. Key Features:There are very few books that treat the problem in general although there are some on materials such as stone, glass and metals, which have chapters on air pollutantsKeywords:Damage to Materials;Building Surfaces;Stone;Metal;Glass

New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation

Author: Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128110341
Format: PDF, ePub
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New Polymer Nanocomposites for Environmental Remediation summarizes recent progress in the development of materials’ properties, fabrication methods and their applications for treatment of contaminants, pollutant sensing and detection. This book presents current research into how polymer nanocomposites can be used in environmental remediation, detailing major environmental issues, and key materials properties and existing polymers or nanomaterials that can solve these issues. The book covers the fundamental molecular structure of polymers used in environmental applications, the toxicology, economy and life-cycle analysis of polymer nanocomposites, and an analysis of potential future applications of these materials. Recent research and development in polymer nanocomposites has inspired the progress and use of novel and cost-effective environmental applications. Presents critical, actionable guidelines to the structure and property design of nanocomposites in environmental remediation Focuses on taking technology out of the lab and into the real world Summarizes the latest developments in polymer nanocomposites and their applications in catalytic degradation, adsorptive removal and detection of contaminants in the environment Enables researchers to stay ahead of the curve, with a full discussion of regulatory issues and potential new applications and materials in this area

The Effects of Air Pollution on the Built Environment

Author: Peter Brimblecombe
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 1783261366
Format: PDF, ePub
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Air pollution damages materials, but it has changed dramatically in the past century, with a reduction in the concentration of corrosive primary pollutants in urban atmospheres. At the same time, architectural styles and types of materials have changed, as we have moved to more organically rich, photochemically active atmospheres. Contemporary air pollutants have the potential to degrade organic coatings and polymers, which are of great importance to modern structures, while increasing amounts of fine diesel soot spoil the simple lines and smooth areas characteristic of many modern buildings. This book examines a range of materials, discussing the ways in which they are likely to be damaged by air pollutants. It should be of interest to scientists and policymakers dealing with the effects of urban air pollution. Contents: Long Term Damage to the Built Environment (P Brimblecombe & D Camuffo)Background Controls on Urban Stone Decay: Lessons from Natural Rock Weathering (B J Smith)Mechanisms of Air Pollution Damage to Stone (C Sabbioni)Mechanisms of Air Pollution Damage to Brick, Concrete and Mortar (T Yates)Salts and Crusts (M Steiger)Organic Pollutants in the Built Environment and Their Effect on the Microorganisms (C Saiz-Jimenez)Air Pollution Damage to Metals (J Tidblad & V Kucera)The Effect of Air Pollution on Glass (J Leissner)The Effects of Ozone on Materials — Experimental Evaluation of the Susceptibility of Polymeric Materials to Ozone (D S Lee et al.)The Soiling of Buildings by Air Pollution (J Watt & R Hamilton)Changes in Soiling Patterns Over Time on the Cathedral of Learning (W Tang et al.)Exposure of Buildings to Pollutants in Urban Areas: A Review of the Contributions from Different Sources (D J Hall et al.)The Whole Building and Patterns of Degradation (R Inkpen) Readership: Air pollution policymakers, environmental scientists, architects and conservators. Keywords:Weathering;Biodeterioration;Soiling;Air Pollution Damage to: Stone, Brick, Salts, Crusts, Metal, Glass, PolymersReviews:“Overall, this volume succeeds well in its aim to examine a range of materials and discuss the ways in which they are likely to be damaged by air pollutants. There is a wealth of useful information, and the wide scope means that it is of broad interest … the book is amazingly good value for a hardback specialized volume.”Environmental Conservation

Advanced Materials for the Conservation of Stone

Author: Majid Hosseini
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319722603
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This book identifies novel advanced materials that can be utilized as protective agents for the preservation of stone. The innovative solutions to stone conservation presented here result in increased sustainability, reduced environmental impact, and increased social and economic benefits. It provides an overview of recent trends and progress in advanced materials applied to stone protection. It also explores the scientific principles behind these advanced materials and discusses their applications to diff erent types of stone preservation efforts. Essential information as well as knowledge on the availability and applicability of advanced nanostructured materials is also provided, with focus placed on the practical aspects of stone protection. Th e book highlights an interdisciplinary eff ort regarding novel applications of nanostructured materials in the advancement of stone protection. It provides insight towards forthcoming developments in the fi eld. Advanced nanostructured materials are designed and developed with the aim of being chemically, physically, and mechanically compatible with stone. Advanced materials for stone conservation that are characterized by several functional properties are considered in this book. These include the physico-chemical, protective, and morphological properties, eco-toxicity, and mechanisms of degradation. The authors present a thorough overview of cutting–edge discoveries, detailed information on recent technological developments, breakthroughs in novel nanomaterials, utilization strategies for applications in cultural heritage, and the current status and future outlook of the topic to address a wide range of scientific communities.

Health Effects of Transport related Air Pollution

Author: Michał Krzyżanowski
Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe
ISBN: 9289013737
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Diseases related to the air pollution caused by road transport affect tens of thousands of people in the WHO Europe region each year. This publication considers the policy challenges involved in the need to reduce the related risks to public health and the environment, whilst meeting socio-economic requirements for effective transport systems. It sets out a systematic review of the literature and a comprehensive evaluation of the health hazards of transport-related air pollution, including factors determining emissions, the contribution of traffic to pollution levels, human exposure and the results of epidemiological and toxicological studies to identify and measure the health effects, and suggestions for policy actions and further research.

Urban Climates

Author: T. R. Oke
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108179363
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Urban Climates is the first full synthesis of modern scientific and applied research on urban climates. The book begins with an outline of what constitutes an urban ecosystem. It develops a comprehensive terminology for the subject using scale and surface classification as key constructs. It explains the physical principles governing the creation of distinct urban climates, such as airflow around buildings, the heat island, precipitation modification and air pollution, and it then illustrates how this knowledge can be applied to moderate the undesirable consequences of urban development and help create more sustainable and resilient cities. With urban climate science now a fully-fledged field, this timely book fulfills the need to bring together the disparate parts of climate research on cities into a coherent framework. It is an ideal resource for students and researchers in fields such as climatology, urban hydrology, air quality, environmental engineering and urban design.

The Effects of Air Pollution on Cultural Heritage

Author: John Watt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387848938
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book reviews the sources of the air pollutants responsible for building damage and the mechanisms involved. Studies investigating the relationships between pollution concentration (dose) and the resulting damage (response) are described and the latest research findings for dose-response functions are presented. Trends in pollutant emissions, ambient concentrations and building damage over time are described and future predictions are presented. Methodologies for assessing the extent of the potential problem in a region – the stock at risk – are presented. Procedures for estimating the economic implications are described and the consequences are discussed in detail, because economic factors are important for reaching policy and management decisions at local, national and international scales. Damage to cultural heritage buildings is an important additional effect which needs to be considered as the standards are revised and the factors which will need to be brought into the assessment are presented.

The Effects of Air Pollution on Cultural Heritage

Author: John Watt
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387848938
Format: PDF, ePub
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This book reviews the sources of the air pollutants responsible for building damage and the mechanisms involved. Studies investigating the relationships between pollution concentration (dose) and the resulting damage (response) are described and the latest research findings for dose-response functions are presented. Trends in pollutant emissions, ambient concentrations and building damage over time are described and future predictions are presented. Methodologies for assessing the extent of the potential problem in a region – the stock at risk – are presented. Procedures for estimating the economic implications are described and the consequences are discussed in detail, because economic factors are important for reaching policy and management decisions at local, national and international scales. Damage to cultural heritage buildings is an important additional effect which needs to be considered as the standards are revised and the factors which will need to be brought into the assessment are presented.

The Particulate Air Pollution Controversy

Author: Robert F. Phalen
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0306482088
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Small invisible particles in the urban air, especially those produced by human activities, have recently stimulated intense scrutiny, debate, regulation, and legal proceedings. The stakes are high, both with respect to health impacts and economic costs, and the methods used previously to resolve similar issues are no longer adequate. Everyone on earth inhales thousands to millions of particles in each breath, so if urban particulate air pollution—particulate matter (PM)—is significantly hazardous, the negative impact on health could be staggering. Yet the activities that generate PM, such as farming, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and generating electricity, are themselves essential to human health and welfare. Scientists, regulators, legislators, activists, judges, lawyers, journalists, and representatives of the business community are actively involved in addressing the question of what should be done. This complex issue presents opportunities for critically assessing the relevant knowledge and for adopting more rigorous approaches to this and similar problems. What is the PM controversy, and why is it a good case study for how science and public policy might better interface? The PM controversy is the sum of the frequently heated debates related to the potential health risks from urban PM.