UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems

Author: E Walter Helbling
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1847552269
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book offers extensive coverage of the most important aspects of UVR effects on all aquatic (not just freshwater and marine) ecosystems, encompassing UV physics, chemistry, biology and ecology. Comprehensive and up-to-date, UV Effects in Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems aims to bridge the gap between environmental studies of UVR effects and the broader, traditional fields of ecology, oceanography and limnology. Adopting a synthetic approach, the different sections cover: the physical factors controlling UVR intensity in the atmosphere; the penetration and distribution of solar radiation in natural waters; the main photochemical process affecting natural and anthropogenic substances; and direct and indirect effects on organisms (from viruses, bacteria and algae to invertebrate and vertebrate consumers). Researchers and professionals in environmental chemistry, photochemistry, photobiology and cell and molecular biology will value this book, as will those looking at ozone depletion and global change.

The Effects of UV Radiation in the Marine Environment

Author: Stephen De Mora
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139429511
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This book, first published in 2000, provides a comprehensive review of UV radiation effects in the marine environment. A multidisciplinary approach is adopted to discuss all aspects from a physical, chemical and biological perspective. The book begins by describing the attenuation of UV radiation in the atmosphere and sea water, outlining the photochemical reactions involved and highlighting the role that such chemistry can play in influencing the biogeochemical cycling of various elements. The deleterious consequences of such radiation on organisms and strategies adopted to mitigate these harmful repercussions are discussed. The organisms considered range from virus and bacteria through phytoplankton and zooplankton to fish and mammals. The book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in photobiology, photochemistry and environmental science. It will also be useful as a supplementary text for courses in oceanography, climatology and ecology.

Biological Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation

Author: Walter Harm
Publisher: CUP Archive
ISBN: 9780521221214
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Originally published in 1980, this book examines the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the genetic material of cells and the repair mechanisms by which many cells can reverse the damage caused by UV. The work was intended to be a combination textbook/introductory monograph for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in photobiology, biophysics, microbiology, and genetics. It was the first volume in an introductory series on topics in biophysics sponsored by the International Union of Pure and Applied Biophysics.

Fundamentals for the Assessment of Risks from Environmental Radiation

Author: Christa Baumstark-Khan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792356677
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Human health as well as aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are threatened from increa sing levels of environmental radiation of various sources, many of them of anthropoge nic causality: large areas of the former Soviet Union suffer from radioactive pollution, in particular after the Chemobyl accident; the increase in the incidence of UVB radiati on at the Earth's surface as a result of a progressive depletion of stratospheric ozone is a global problem that requires international concerted actions; in areas of former uranium mining the natural radiation level is substantially increased due to elevated radon levels; a growing portion of the population involved in air traffic is exposed to increased levels of natural radiation; and with the International Space Station an increasing number of astronauts will be exposed to the complex field of cosmic radiation. To estimate the corresponding risks, a better knowledge of the underlying radiobiological mechanisms at the molecular, cellular and system level is required. This book is the result of a multidisciplinary effort to discuss the current state of knowledge of the fundamental processes that result from interactions of environmental radiation -ionizing as well as UV radiation -with living matter and the existing radiati on protection concepts, and then to define future research work needed as fundamental information for the assessment of risks from increased levels of environmental radiation to human health and ecosystem balance. It comprises the key lectures and statements presented at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop.

Stressors in the Marine Environment

Author: Martin Solan
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198718837
Format: PDF, Kindle
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A multitude of direct and indirect human influences have significantly altered the environmental conditions, composition, and diversity of marine communities. However, understanding and predicting the combined impacts of single and multiple stressors is particularly challenging because observed ecological feedbacks are underpinned by a number of physiological and behavioural responses that reflect stressor type, severity, and timing. Furthermore, integration between the traditional domains of physiology and ecology tends to be fragmented and focused towards the effects of a specific stressor or set of circumstances. This novel volume summarises the latest research in the physiological and ecological responses of marine species to a comprehensive range of marine stressors, including chemical and noise pollution, ocean acidification, hypoxia, UV radiation, thermal and salinity stress before providing a perspective on future outcomes for some of the most pressing environmental issues facing society today. Stressors in the Marine Environment synthesises the combined expertise of a range of international researchers, providing a truly interdisciplinary and accessible summary of the field. It is essential reading for graduate students as well as professional researchers in environmental physiology, ecology, marine biology, conservation biology, and marine resource management. It will also be of particular relevance and use to the regulatory agencies and authorities tasked with managing the marine environment, including social scientists and environmental economists.

Aquatic Ecosystems

Author: Stuart Findlay
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0122563719
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Aquatic Ecosystems explains the interplay between various movements of matter and energy through ecosystems mediated by Dissolved Organic Matter. This book provides information on how much DOM there is in a particular aquatic ecosystem and where it originates. It explains whether the DOM composition varies from time to time and place to place. It also details how DOM becomes incorporated into microbial food webs, and gives a better, clarifying, understanding to its significance of DOM. Dissolved Organic Matter (called DOM) is incredibly important in all aquatic ecosystems. Although it might seem that logs and leaves are more important, in fact the DOM is more crucial because the DOM is in a form that is available for use by all the organisms living in the the water. Furthermore, DOM influences complex food webs by mediating the availability of aquatic nutrients, metals, salts and minerals. DOM also affects water clarity, which of course has alters the way animals and plants live and feed in the water. There are many ways to study DOM and this book focuses on several central questions. How much DOM is there in a particular aquatic ecosytem? Where does it come from? Does the composition of the DOM vary from time to time and place to palce? How does DOM become incorporated into microbial food webs, which are the basis of plant, invertebrate and vertebrate food webs? How can the answers to these and other questions about DOM be considered together so that a better understanding of the significance of DOM can emerge?

Echinodermata

Author: Valeria Matranga
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540244028
Format: PDF, Docs
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Members of the phylum Echinodermata are among the most familiar marine invertebrates. Forms such as the sea star have become virtually a symbol of sea life. Used in ancient oriental medicine as a source of bioactive compounds, sea cucumbers, sea stars and sea urchins are now used for the extraction and purification of cytotoxic, haemolytic, antiviral, antifungal, antifouling, antimicrobial and even anti-tumoural activities. In addition, of the five extant classes, sea urchins and sea cucumbers are important economic resources for current fishery and aquaculture. Molecular and cell biological techniques described in this book are, on the one hand, indicative of the improvements made over the years and, on the other, stress the need of their further exploitation for the sustainable production of bioactive compounds and their application in biomedicine.

Arctic Alpine Ecosystems and People in a Changing Environment

Author: Jon Børre Ørbaek
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540485147
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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The European Arctic and Alpine regions are experiencing large environmental changes. These changes may have socio-economic effects if the changes affect the bioproduction, which form the basis for the marine and terrestrial food chains. This uniquely multidisciplinary book presents the various aspects of contemporary environmental changes in Arctic and Alpine Regions.

Expected Effects of Climatic Change on Marine Coastal Ecosystems

Author: Jan Beukema
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400920032
Format: PDF, Mobi
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J. J. Beukema, w. J. Wolff & J. J. W. M. Brouns Man is changing the biosphere at an ever increasing Netherlands ministery of Housing, Physical Planning rate. Several of these man-made changes are on a and Health (represented by Dr. G. P. Hekstra), chaired worldwide scale, such as the increase in atmospheric by Dr. w. J. Wolff (Research Institute for Nature concentrations of several gases. In particular the Management) and housed by the Netherlands In ongoing increase of the concentration of at stitute for Sea Research (N. I. O. Z. , represented by Dr. mospheric carbon dioxide, by excessive burning of J. J. Beukema). fossil fuels and forest destruction, is well The written versions of the presentations by 23 par documented. By the year 2050, CO levels will ticipants have been brought together in these pro 2 almost certainly be twice the pre-industrial concen ceedings of the Workshop. trations and this is expected to have far-reaching consequences. Direct effects include higher rates of The first paper, by G. P. HEKSTRA, explains how plant production (also in agriculture). Indirect effects trace gases affect UV-B radiation, alkalinity of the might be less favourable: by the intensified sea, rate of photosynthesis, and greenhouse warm 'greenhouse process' (to which several other gases ing.