Variational and Extremum Principles in Macroscopic Systems

Author: Stanislaw Sieniutycz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080456140
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Recent years have seen a growing trend to derive models of macroscopic phenomena encountered in the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, ecology, self-organisation theory and econophysics from various variational or extremum principles. Through the link between the integral extremum of a functional and the local extremum of a function (explicit, for example, in the Pontryagin’s maximum principle variational and extremum principles are mutually related. Thus it makes sense to consider them within a common context. The main goal of Variational and Extremum Principles in Macroscopic Systems is to collect various mathematical formulations and examples of physical reasoning that involve both basic theoretical aspects and applications of variational and extremum approaches to systems of the macroscopic world. The first part of the book is focused on the theory, whereas the second focuses on applications. The unifying variational approach is used to derive the balance or conservation equations, phenomenological equations linking fluxes and forces, equations of change for processes with coupled transfer of energy and substance, and optimal conditions for energy management. A unique multidisciplinary synthesis of variational and extremum principles in theory and application A comprehensive review of current and past achievements in variational formulations for macroscopic processes Uses Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms as a basis for the exposition of novel approaches to transfer and conversion of thermal, solar and chemical energy

The Nature of Motive Force

Author: Achintya Kumar Pramanick
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642544711
Format: PDF, ePub
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In this monograph Prof. Pramanick explicates the law of motive force, a fundamental law of nature that can be observed and appreciated as an addition to the existing laws of thermodynamics. This unmistakable and remarkable tendency of nature is equally applicable to all other branches of studies. He first conceptualized the law of motive force in 1989, when he was an undergraduate student. Here he reports various applications of the law in the area of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics and solid mechanics, and shows how it is possible to solve analytically century-old unsolved problems through its application. This book offers a comprehensive account of the law and its relation to other laws and principles, such as the generalized conservation principle, variational formulation, Fermat’s principle, Bejan’s constructal law, entropy generation minimization, Bejan’s method of intersecting asymptotes and equipartition principle. Furthermore, the author addresses some interrelated fundamental problems of contemporary interest, especially to thermodynamicists, by combining analytical methods, physical reasoning and the proposed law of motive force. This foundational work is a valuable reading for both students and researchers in exact as well as non-exact sciences and, at the same time, a pleasant learning experience for the novice.

Energy Optimization in Process Systems

Author: Stanislaw Sieniutycz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080914428
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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Despite the vast research on energy optimization and process integration, there has to date been no synthesis linking these together. This book fills the gap, presenting optimization and integration in energy and process engineering. The content is based on the current literature and includes novel approaches developed by the authors. Various thermal and chemical systems (heat and mass exchangers, thermal and water networks, energy converters, recovery units, solar collectors, and separators) are considered. Thermodynamics, kinetics and economics are used to formulate and solve problems with constraints on process rates, equipment size, environmental parameters, and costs. Comprehensive coverage of dynamic optimization of energy conversion systems and separation units is provided along with suitable computational algorithms for deterministic and stochastic optimization approaches based on: nonlinear programming, dynamic programming, variational calculus, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory, Pontryagin's maximum principles, and special methods of process integration. Integration of heat energy and process water within a total site is shown to be a significant factor reducing production costs, in particular costs of utilities for the chemical industry. This integration involves systematic design and optimization of heat exchangers and water networks (HEN and WN). After presenting basic, insight-based Pinch Technology, systematic, optimization-based sequential and simultaneous approaches to design HEN and WN are described. Special consideration is given to the HEN design problem targeting stage, in view of its importance at various levels of system design. Selected, advanced methods for HEN synthesis and retrofit are presented. For WN design a novel approach based on stochastic optimization is described that accounts for both grassroot and revamp design scenarios. Presents a unique synthesis of energy optimization and process integration that applies scientific information from thermodynamics, kinetics, and systems theory Discusses engineering applications including power generation, resource upgrading, radiation conversion and chemical transformation, in static and dynamic systems Clarifies how to identify thermal and chemical constraints and incorporate them into optimization models and solutions

Optimizing Thermal Chemical and Environmental Systems

Author: Stanislaw Sieniutycz
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128135832
Format: PDF
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Optimizing Thermal, Chemical and Environmental Systems treats the evaluation of power or energy limits for processes that arise in various thermal, chemical and environmental engineering systems (heat and mass exchangers, power converters, recovery units, solar collectors, mixture separators, chemical reactors, catalyst regenerators, etc.). The book is an indispensable source for researchers and students, providing the necessary information on what has been achieved to date in the field of process optimization, new research problems, and what kind of further studies should be developed within quite specialized optimizations. Summarizes recent achievements of advanced optimization techniques Links exergy definitions in reversible systems with classical problems of extremum work Includes practical problems and illustrative examples to clarify applications Provides a unified description of classical and work-assisted heat and mass exchangers Written by a first-class expert in the field of advanced methods in thermodynamics

Understanding Non equilibrium Thermodynamics

Author: Georgy Lebon
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783540742524
Format: PDF
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Discover the many facets of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The first part of this book describes the current thermodynamic formalism recognized as the classical theory. The second part focuses on different approaches. Throughout the presentation, the emphasis is on problem-solving applications. To help build your understanding, some problems have been analyzed using several formalisms to underscore their differences and their similarities.

Non commuting Variations in Mathematics and Physics

Author: Serge Preston
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319283235
Format: PDF, Mobi
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This text presents and studies the method of so –called noncommuting variations in Variational Calculus. This method was pioneered by Vito Volterra who noticed that the conventional Euler-Lagrange (EL-) equations are not applicable in Non-Holonomic Mechanics and suggested to modify the basic rule used in Variational Calculus. This book presents a survey of Variational Calculus with non-commutative variations and shows that most basic properties of conventional Euler-Lagrange Equations are, with some modifications, preserved for EL-equations with K-twisted (defined by K)-variations. Most of the book can be understood by readers without strong mathematical preparation (some knowledge of Differential Geometry is necessary). In order to make the text more accessible the definitions and several necessary results in Geometry are presented separately in Appendices I and II Furthermore in Appendix III a short presentation of the Noether Theorem describing the relation between the symmetries of the differential equations with dissipation and corresponding s balance laws is presented.

Econophysics

Author: Gheorghe Săvoiu
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0124046266
Format: PDF, Docs
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The remarkable evolution of econophysics research has brought the deep synthesis of ideas derived from economics and physics to subjects as diverse as education, banking, finance, and the administration of large institutions. The original papers in this collection present a broad summary of these advances, written by interdisciplinary specialists. Included are studies on subjects in the development of econophysics; on the perspectives offered by econophysics on large problems in economics and finance, including the 2008-9 financial crisis; and on higher education and group decision making. The introductions and insights they provide will benefit everyone interested in applications of this new transdisciplinary science. Ten papers present an updated version of the origins, issues, and applications of econophysics Economics and finance chapters consider lessons learned from the 2008-9 financial crisis Sociophysics chapters propose new thinking on educational reforms and group decision making

Exploratory Data Analysis Using Fisher Information

Author: Roy Frieden
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781846287770
Format: PDF
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This book uses a mathematical approach to deriving the laws of science and technology, based upon the concept of Fisher information. The approach that follows from these ideas is called the principle of Extreme Physical Information (EPI). The authors show how to use EPI to determine the theoretical input/output laws of unknown systems. Will benefit readers whose math skill is at the level of an undergraduate science or engineering degree.

Conservation Laws in Variational Thermo Hydrodynamics

Author: S. Sieniutycz
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401110840
Format: PDF
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This study is one of the first attempts to bridge the theoretical models of variational dynamics of perfect fluids and some practical approaches worked out in chemical and mechanical engineering in the field newly called thermo-hydrodynamics. In recent years, applied mathematicians and theoretical physicists have made significant progress in formulating analytical tools to describe fluid dynamics through variational methods. These tools are much loved by theoretists, and rightly so, because they are quite powerful and beautiful theoretical tools. Chemists, physicists and engineers, however, are limited in their ability to use these tools, because presently they are applicable only to "perfect fluids" (i. e. those fluids without viscosity, heat transfer, diffusion and chemical reactions). To be useful, a model must take into account important transport and rate phenomena, which are inherent to real fluid behavior and which cannot be ignored. This monograph serves to provide the beginnings of a means by which to extend the mathematical analyses to include the basic effects of thermo-hydrodynamics. In large part a research report, this study uses variational calculus as a basic theoretical tool, without undo compromise to the integrity of the mathematical analyses, while emphasizing the conservation laws of real fluids in the context of underlying thermodynamics --reversible or irreversible. The approach of this monograph is a new generalizing approach, based on Nother's theorem and variational calculus, which leads to the energy-momentum tensor and the related conservation or balance equations in fluids.

Variational Methods in the Mechanics of Solids

Author: S. Nemat-Nasser
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483145832
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Variational Methods in the Mechanics of Solids contains the proceedings of the International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics Symposium on Variational Methods in the Mechanics of Solids, held at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, on September 11-13, 1978. The papers focus on advances in the application of variational methods to a variety of mathematically and technically significant problems in solid mechanics. The discussions are organized around three themes: thermomechanical behavior of composites, elastic and inelastic boundary value problems, and elastic and inelastic dynamic problems. This book is comprised of 58 chapters and opens by addressing some questions of asymptotic expansions connected with composite and with perforated materials. The following chapters explore mathematical and computational methods in plasticity; variational irreversible thermodynamics of open physical-chemical continua; macroscopic behavior of elastic material with periodically spaced rigid inclusions; and application of the Lanczos method to structural vibration. Finite deformation of elastic beams and complementary theorems of solid mechanics are also considered, along with numerical contact elastostatics; periodic solutions in plasticity and viscoplasticity; and the convergence of the mixed finite element method in linear elasticity. This monograph will appeal to practitioners of mathematicians as well as theoretical and applied mechanics.