Venomous Bites from Non venomous Snakes

Author: Scott A. Weinstein
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0123877326
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This book is the first significant contribution to thoroughly examine the potential hazards associated with snakes of the former family, Colubridae. This family contained >65% of living snake species (approximately 3,000 taxa) and has recently been split into multiple families. Many of these snakes produce oral secretions that contain toxins and other biologically-active substances. A large variety of these snakes figure in the pet industry, yet little documented information or formal study of their potential medical importance has been published. Therefore, although the possible medical importance of many of these species has been subjected to speculation since the mid-nineteenth century, there is a limited amount of useful descriptive information regarding the real hazard (or lack thereof) of snakes belonging to this diverse, artificial family. There is a need for "one-stop shopping" offering information regarding their possible toxicity and clinical relevance as well as recommendations for medical management of their bites. This book is the first synthesis of this information and includes evidence-based risk assessment, hazard rankings and specific recommendations regarding important species, many common in captivity. Fills a gap in the toxinological, medical and herpetological literature by providing a comprehensive review of this entire assemblage of snakes, with particular attention given to their capacity, real or rumored, to cause harm to humans A patient-centered, evidence-based approach is applied to analyzing documented case reports of bites inflicted by approximately 100 species. Clinical management of medically significant bites from non-front-fanged colubroids is methodically reviewed, and specific recommendations are provided

Venomous Reptiles and Their Toxins

Author: Bryan Fry
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199309396
Format: PDF
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Venom research and technology has advanced greatly, rapidly transforming our knowledge of reptile venoms. Research advances, like the development of molecular systematics, provide the framework necessary to reconstruct the evolutionary history of glands and fangs. Such research developments have expanded our understanding of venom's evolution and its usefulness in therapeutic development. The results of this punctuated toxin molecular evolutionary expansion include protein neofunctionalization. While these changes may impact antivenom efficacy, this molecular diversity also facilitates their usefulness in the development of novel drug therapies. Venomous Reptiles And Their Toxins brings together the world's leading toxinologists in this comprehensive study of the entire scope of reptile venoms, from clinical effects to evolution to drug design and development. The book contains detailed applied chapters on clinical care of the envenomed patient, ineffective traditional or modern remedies, occupational considerations involved in the maintenance of institutional venomous reptile collections, veterinary care for venomous reptiles and research methods used in venom research. This book also devotes a chapter to each toxin class found in reptile venoms, detailing the full trajectory of research on the peptide or protein in question. These chapters discuss each toxin's respective role in the envenomation process through to how each has been explored for their biomedical potential. This book is a unique resource for anyone working with venomous reptiles.

How Snakes Work

Author: Harvey B. Lillywhite
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199701571
Format: PDF
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Anyone can look at a snake and see a creature unique unto itself, a reptile with a set of zoological and biological traits that are entirely its own. Just looking at this distinct animal raises many scientific questions. With regard to evolution, how did such an animal come to be? How does a snake move, and how do its sense organs differ from that of other reptiles? How does it eat, and how does it reproduce? Essentially, how does a snake "work"? In How Snakes Work: The Structure, Function and Behavior of the World's Snakes, leading zoologist Harvey B. Lillywhite has written the definitive scientific guide to the functional biology of snakes. Written for both herpetologists and a more general audience with an interest in the field, How Snakes Work features nearly two hundred color images of various species of snakes, used to provide visual examples of biological features explained in the text. Chapter topics include the evolutionary history of the snake, feeding, locomotion, the structure and function of skin, circulation and respiration, sense organs, sound production, temperature and thermoregulation, and reproduction. Containing all the latest research and advances in our biological knowledge of the snake, How Snakes Work is an indispensable asset to professional zoologists and enthusiasts alike.

Herpetological Osteopathology

Author: Bruce M. Rothschild
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461408245
Format: PDF, Kindle
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As scientific analysis of testable hypotheses has replaced the speculative approach to study of bone disease in recent and fossil amphibians and reptiles, the field has advanced from simply reporting observations to analyzing their implications. This process is predicated upon a reproducible data base which explains/diagnoses the nature of bony alterations and a secure review of the literature. Thereby hangs the rub. The herpetological literature are difficult to access (let alone read) and are scattered through many prominent and eclectic journals and in the lay literature. While older diagnoses often have not stood the test of time, the clarity of report descriptions usually allows confident identification of the underlying pathology.

Escaping From Predators

Author: William E. Cooper, Jr
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107060540
Format: PDF
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Bringing together theory and reality of prey escape from predators, this book benchmarks new and current thinking in escape ecology.

Rabies and Envenomings

Author: D. A. Warrell
Publisher: World Health Organization
ISBN: 9241563486
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
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This publication reports on a Consultative Meeting convened to discuss strategies for improving the quality and quantity of therapeutic antisera essential drugs for the effective treatment of suspected rabid dog bites and envenoming by snake bites and scorpion stings. Inadequacies in the efficacy safety and production of these antisera have created a major global public health crisis especially in Africa and Asia. Each year millions of people are bitten by dogs or snakes or stung by scorpions and the failure to provide antisera costs at least 150 000 lives and at least as many cases of permanent physical handicap. The solution to this crisis demands an international effort to promote transfer of technology to affected countries to improve standards through the WHO's prequalification scheme and to facilitate distribution of antisera and training of medical personnel in their optimal use.

Animal Toxins

Author: Findlay E. Russell
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1483186105
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Animal Toxins is a collection of papers that tackles the advancement in studies that aim to enhance the contemporary understanding of animal toxins. The materials in the text are organized according to the organism they cover. The first section tackles the concerns with venomous arthropods, such as the structure of the venom gland of the black widow spider Latrodectus mactans and the biochemical-immunochemical aspects of the venom from the scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus. Next, articles about poisonous marine animals are presented, which include differentiation of the poisons of fish, shellfish, and plankton and block of sensory nerve conduction in the cat by mussel poison and tetrodotoxin. In Section III, the selection reviews papers about snakes and amphibians, such as epidemiological methods in studying venomous snakebites and chemistry of cytotoxic substances in amphibian toxins. The book will be of great interest to toxicologists, zoologists, and biochemists.

Toxins and Hemostasis

Author: R. Manjunatha Kini
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789048192953
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Circulation of blood is vital for the survival of vertebrates, including man. Mainly, it plays an important role in carrying food nutrients and oxygen to every tissue and organ and in removing all waste products and carbon dioxide. Any imbalance in the hemostatic and cardiovascular systems can lead to death and severe debility. A number of animals have developed mechanisms to target these systems and exploit the vulnerability. In some species (for example, snakes), such mechanisms are used to immobilize and kill the victim/prey, whereas in others (for example, insects, such as leaches, mosquitoes and ticks), they are used to provide a continuous supply of blood. These mechanisms include, but are not limited to, procoagulant and anticoagulant actions that affect the coagulation cascade and platelet aggregation, as well as altering vasodilatory responses. In all these various animals, these mechanisms have evolved to perfection over millions of years to support their survival. In last 3-4 decades, due to the efforts of scientists from various backgrounds including biology, protein chemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, hematology, and structural biology, significant progress in understanding the structure-function relationships, as well as the mechanism of action have been made in a number of exogenous factors that affect blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and vasodilation from various animals. These exogenous factors have contributed significantly to the development of research tools as well as providing new therapeutic agents. With the increase average age of the population coupled with changes in life style in recent years, there has been a significant increase in cardiovascular and hematological disorders. Thus scientists in both academic institutions as well as the pharmaceutical industry are developing better therapeutic agents to improve the quality of life. This impetus has lead to the search for novel agents from various sources that interfere with cardiovascular and hematalogical processes. Although at first glance exogenous factors appear to function as ‘villains’, several life-saving drugs have been developed based upon these factors. Such drugs or drug leads include those that inhibit the angiotensin converting enzymes (Captopril and Enalapril), that block platelet receptors (Eptifibatide and Tirofiban), or that digest thrombotic plugs (Alfimeprase and bat plasminogen activator) to name a few. Several new and exciting success stories are currently unfolding. In this book, recent studies on some of the exogenous factors that play crucial roles in cardiovascular and hematological disorders are reviewed in order to consolidate the efforts in this area of research and to recruit new, talented researchers. The 25-30 review chapters, each written by experts in their field, compiled herein are devoted to exogenous factors affecting platelet aggregation, anticoagulant and procoagulant proteins, fibrinolytic proteins and hypotensive agents (For details see, Contents of the Book). This book is intended to help to create elevated awareness and enthusiasm in the field of exogenous factors. I believe that this book will provide greater impetus to the search for novel proteins based on naturally occurring exogenous factors. This will be the first book dealing extensively with exogenous factors in the last 25 years. The book will provide a ready reference to the different approaches used to solve complex problems in protein chemistry and pharmacology of exogenous factors. The book will update our understanding of the structure-function relationships and mechanisms of action of exogenous factors and provide great insights into future directions for solving the remaining challenges.

Chemical Ecology of Insects

Author: William J. Bell
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1489933689
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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Our objective in compiling a series of chapters on the chemical ecology of insects has been to delineate the major concepts of this discipline. The fine line between presenting a few topics in great detail or many topics in veneer has been carefully drawn, such that the book contains sufficient diversity to cover the field and a few topics in some depth. After the reader has penetrated the crust of what has been learned about chemical ecology of insects, the deficiencies in our understanding of this field should become evident. These deficiencies, to which no chapter topic is immune, indicate the youthful state of chemical ecology and the need for further investigations, especially those with potential for integrating elements that are presently isolated from each other. At the outset of this volume it becomes evident that, although we are beginning to decipher how receptor cells work, virtually nothing is known of how sensory information is coded to become relevant to the insect and to control the behavior of the insect. This problem is exacerbated by the state of our knowledge of how chemicals are distributed in nature, especially in complex habitats. And finally, we have been unable to understand the significance of orientation pathways of insects, in part because of the two previous problems: orientation seems to depend on patterns of distri bution of chemicals, the coding of these patterns by the central nervous system, and the generation of motor output based on the resulting motor commands.